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flirt? In the temple?

What is that mysterious instrument called Reduel or Adderbals that was part of the repertoire of the Second Temple? Is it an instrument consisting of a system of windpipe, pipes, water basin and containers invented in the third century BC in Alexandria and popularized in the first century AD?

The president of the Sanhedrin, Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel, testifies in the Tofsa (Arakhin XNUMX Yad) that "the radal were not in the temple, because it mixes the voice and spoils the pleasantness." In the Babylonian Talmud the words are mentioned by name and a Babylonian sage clarifies the definition of the instrument as "tabla gorgadna" (Arakhin XNUMX p. XNUMX) - we were a big drum, "because its sound is Arab (tzel aba) and mixes the pleasantness." Even there it is said that "he was not in the temple". It is interesting, by the way, that in some versions the word "no" was deleted, when the instruction was - "The raduli was in the temple".

The Jerusalem Talmud explains the Toseftai term from the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish as follows: "An organ is an ardbals." Let Rabbi Shimon ben Gamaliel tell us - there were no ardavles in Jerusalem because they stink of pleasantness" (Sukkah chapter 221 page 246 p. 68). , "Hardolim", or "Ardbalis" - "Ardbalis") is derived from the Greek - "Odraulos", "Odralis" and refers to a musical instrument invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria (54-XNUMX BC) and enjoyed a renewed flourishing during the reign of the Roman Nero (XNUMX -XNUMX AD). The instrument consisted of a system of windpipe, pipes, water basin and containers, from which very special sounds were produced. If so before us, so it seems, a water organ. The mishna tells about an automatic device, a complicated and complex mechanical mechanism related to water found in the temple. Near it, from a parallel source, it is told about the Nicanor gate in the temple brought from Alexandria. Interesting automatic devices were found in the Egyptian temple, and the Greek Pausanias testifies to an ingenious automatic device found in the Jerusalem temple.

It is not impossible to assume that a minor who made "mechanics for the sink (in the temple), so that there will be no Nefslin in the night" (Yoma III) was influenced by Alexandrian inventions, or even helped by Alexandrian experts who were well-known when it comes to mechanical mechanisms.

Moreover, the Tosefta, after telling about the "Hardaolim" from the mouth of Rabbi Shimon ben Gamaliel, expands on a number of cases involving certain tools that were used in the temple such as "a bell in the temple, made of copper... and was damaged." Sages sent and brought Omanin from Alexandria in Egypt, who corrected him, and his voice was not as good as it was" (Thus. Arakhin XNUMX:XNUMX).

In the Parashat Hazakat Omni Alexandria and Amenia, the Bariata brings the following story: "Tano Rabban: Abov was in the temple. part was It was thin. Cana's was and Moshe's death was... the king commanded (probably Agrippa II) and they coated him with gold, and his voice was not Arab. They took away his coating and his voice was evening as it was" (Arakhin XNUMX, p. XNUMX). And it is known that Agrippa II saw to the completion of the temple building, especially with regard to the architectural decorations and the various gold coatings on the walls and columns.

Similar, it seems, the words of the Rashbagh that appear in the sources, in a careful wording, imply that an attempt was probably made (perhaps intended to please the Emperor Nero), but without much success, to integrate the organ into the system of musical instruments in the Temple. However, the sounds that emanated from it threatened to "swallow" the sounds of the violins and harps (about its significantly powerful sounds can be learned from sources - Tosefta Arakhin XNUMX:XNUMX; Babylonian Talmud, Arakhin XNUMX:XNUMX, etc.) and so the plan was shelved. It should be noted that nowadays, although the organ has been perfected, its sounds can fill the space of a huge church or a spacious concert hall.

Although such a plan was shelved, there is reason to assume that an attempt was indeed made to integrate the organ into the temple musical system, and above we saw that they wanted to coat the oboe, made of reed, with gold and its voice was damaged, "and there was no evening as it was" - according to the sources.

Let us present this matter in front of one of the musical instructions in the Archin Mishnah, the one that deals with "hydraulis" and the damaged temple instruments, in this language: "And he did not strike with a copper pipe, but with a reed pipe, because its sound is Arabic" (Archin XNUMX:XNUMX). In other words, an attempt was made to strike with a "copper flute", but without much success. More than that, the box concerning the guarantee of the voice is also repeated in the two cases above - the hydraulics, the flute or the oboe and the bell that were in the temple, and there are probably no coincidences here.

On the same subject: musical rake

14 תגובות

  1. What a shame!!!
    To think that Judaism is not updated, that otherwise we would still be wearing head coverings as a kind of coercion and a robe.
    But even more pity!!!
    To make the mistake of thinking that the spirit of Judaism was changed by external factors, but on the contrary, it used actual science for its own sake, and in this case, an Alexandrian mechanical invention for the benefit of the temple as well as the organ (if it really existed).

  2. Dr. Shurk,
    I miss you during my regular menstrual cycle. I've already started worrying about your health, God forbid.
    Please ignore the detractors...and continue to illuminate the nationalist darkness with your scholarly articles.
    Loyal reader, you already have...
    Great appreciation.

  3. Hello to the point
    Oh, how you burst not into an open door but into a soccer goal torn wide open. I, "with all the respect and modesty I deserve", am among the few in the field of academia, research and advertising, who dares to say things as they are about the perversion of the people of Israel for generations, and because of this I am ostracized and banned from very few respectable institutions.

  4. It seems you haven't read enough in your book. The claims and evidence you present are nothing compared to the explicit criticism of the people of Israel. Only a gentile like Balaam can delude himself that there is anything good in us 🙂

  5. Hello to the point

    I came to show that the people of Israel, as well as in many other cases, were not at all different from the civilizational fabric in which they lived. The "Balamite" statement of "They are a people shall dwell alone and the Gentiles shall not be considered" has nothing to rely on and expresses at best the wish of the speaker's heart.

  6. Lihyam whistles
    I brought the psychologists as an example that lying and bluffing can also lead to good things..
    Besides, I didn't understand what you came to show in the article. that had an effect on the Jews? After all, the entire Talmud is written in Aramaic.
    And as for the Jews, the Hazaras themselves said that the Temple was destroyed because of gratuitous hatred, and that is much worse than the bluffs you come and try to show.

  7. to the point,

    Well, there really is a difference, a difference between personal care and sweeping away the faith of a people, and I speak from the top of the atheist podium.
    Rather, educate me about the psychologists' bluffs!

  8. I have an article in my library about the bluffs - the musical and quasi-pyrotechnic effects that were used in the temple in order to fascinate the public and give them the feeling that God is hovering in his glory above the temple.
    When I leave - I will leave!

  9. In any case, it is a discovery that the ultra-orthodox will not like, that even in the temple the influence of the dominant culture at the time (Roman and probably also before Greek and before that Persian) operated in its full scope.

  10. To a point:
    What does it mean, 'open Talmud and learn'? The whole Talmud, or just parts of it?... Or maybe we'll open Wikipedia and go through it page by page?
    In short, Dr. Yechiam is doing a wonderful job here, and an arbitrator
    For us the chaff is like hay. Keep it up!

    Listen to my 'Making History!', podcast
    Biweekly about the history of science and technology.

  11. And what about an organ that appears in the Bible..

    And what did Yahyam Sorek come to tell us? Open a Talmud and learn everything written there.

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