Dr. Yahyam whistles
In the Jewish music after the Holocaust, signs of Greek-Hellenistic and Roman influence were embedded, and from it various aspects emerge as a result of the involvement of sages
The Jews in the Greek-Hellenistic space were more involved in everything related to Greek customs that penetrated Judaism such as the hemansion and especially music
It has already been mentioned several times the brave connection forged between Greek and Hellenistic philosophy and music - the Pythagorean school that attributed a supreme moral value to music, the Platonic school that insisted on the relationship between music and human nature and moral condition, and similarly the Aristotelian school. These philosophies penetrated Judea during the days of Roman rule
King Herod sought, in accordance with Roman policy, to integrate the Jewish kingdom under his leadership into the global culture of the Roman-Hellenistic Empire
Compared to the countless sources concerning the music in the temple, there is little information about the sand music, and yet the research brings up interesting things
Reading motivated by the Torah and prayers was an important, immanent element, in imparting the Torah and midrashes and Sages went into the depth of the importance of the Na'ima which served as an important means of sharpening the memory and flourished from the Mishna period onwards
The beginning of the institution of the synagogue is rooted in the gatherings of the people in the temple in the days of Ezra the scribe and the reading of the Torah from his mouth. At first, the gathering was intended for Torah reading, while the liturgical element was added later, such as midrash and Torah study.
Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakhai, who moved from Jerusalem to Livna and made major changes in religious practice after the Holocaust, is also responsible for the disappearance of the vocal music of the Temple, and the transition of only vocal music to the synagogues, with one exception - the shofar
The shofar that stars on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur was a central instrument among the wind instruments in a temple. next to the trumpets. It was transformed from its previous roles as an announcer of important events - coronations of kings and wars and became a ritual instrument, and from the horn of Yael it was preceded by the horn of Eyal
The music in the temple was an important element in the celebrations of the three pilgrimages, with the many pilgrims who arrived in Jerusalem
One of the cardinal areas that highlighted the image of the second temple was the pilgrimage three times a year. The Ascensions, both as a framework and as a means, in which the many areas of the people's attachment to his temple were expressed and revealed. Much of the music in the temple focused on these days of pilgrimage
We have already discussed the importance of the body known as "the funeral cadets". We will point here to another body called "the flowers of the priesthood". The flowers of the priesthood took a particularly prominent place in the issue of Yom Kippur, because in this ceremony the figure of the high priest rose, unlike other events that took place in the temple.
The thing that stands out in the traditions is that singing in the temple was an inseparable part of the actual work, from the work of the temple to the point of distinguishing that even "singing" is "work". This work, it should be noted, is based on the establishment of music in the Temple throughout the days of the Second Temple.
In the past we pointed to the important family element found in the temple's musical system. This phenomenon was common in neighboring Egypt and Mesopotamia. So much so that it took shape towards the establishment of musical guilds with a family foundation. Turns out there were a lot of musical roles
From harp and violin, through bells, trumpets and of course up to trumpets - each instrument had special instructions during the Second Temple period
In the second temple in Jerusalem, sacrifices were made, twice a day, for the peace of the emperor and the peace of Rome, as a practice that spread from the time of the emperor Augustus onwards - a period corresponding to the reign of King Herod) and was associated with bravery in music, in a way that until then was considered as foreign worship
During the time of the last Jewish kings, the Roman government rarely interfered with the internal affairs, therefore an orderly continuation was possible with regard to the Temple and within it - the musical management
In this chapter I will review the development of temple music from the end of the days of Ezera and Nehemiah until the outbreak of the Maccabean rebellion
The music in the temple on the days of Shibat Zion went through several incarnations while changing from loud-rhythmic music to mixed and pleasant music
In this chapter I would like to highlight the special and significant contribution of the captains of the return to Zion - Zerubbabel ben Shealtiel and Yehoshua ben Yehozedek (516-538 BC) and especially that of Ezra and Nehemiah (432-458 BC) in regards to Jewish music in the Temple
Holistic and vocal music occupied a very important place in the biblical period and it is a matter of emphasis - the lack of a prominent and unique connection to worship specifically. The poetry that was common was secular and it included songs of sand, wine, feasting and debauchery. Here and there there were spontaneous single service following events