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Sophie Germain - the mathematician who refused the prize - a gold statue weighing a kilogram

When she reached the age of 13, she first came across the famous story of the murder of the great Archimedes by a Roman warrior while he was trying to build engineering forms by drawing on the sand; This influenced her a lot until she decided in her heart to dedicate her life to mathematics

A sculpture by Sophie Germain
A sculpture by Sophie Germain

Several million years ago, a special creature began to walk bent over the earth, when at one point it stood completely upright, which brought it to dominate the world around it. This creature was divided into two individuals and apart from an incredibly low IQ which was the same - the main difference is evident in that one had greater physical strength and this fact brought him to complete control over the other individual. As is well known, when you start to descend from a steep hill, the speed increases with the progress, and thus the mentioned fact led to the perception that superior physical strength also indicates other superior abilities that the other individual could never achieve even if he wanted to. At some point, the other individual succeeded in surpassing the first individual in a field that was unique to him and since this completely undermines the theory on which he was based, he began to hide his own limited abilities with prohibitions that he imposed on the other individual thanks to his physical strength. The primitive abyss described here was opened to such an extent that it managed to contain all the descendants of these two individuals to this very day. The article now brings before you the first evidence of the depth of the failures of those individuals called by the collective name - people, and at the end of it the question is asked:

"Where would we be today if it weren't for this abyss? "

The life of Marie-Sophie Germain (Marie-Sophie Germain) begins in France in 1776 when her home often serves as a meeting place for philosophical discussions about the importance of liberal reforms. But the main thing is when she reached the age of 13 and first encountered the famous story about the murder of the great Archimedes by a Roman warrior while he was trying to build engineering forms by drawing on the sand; This influenced her a lot until she decided in her heart to dedicate her life to mathematics.

It is important to understand that at that time a black curtain was placed heavily on women in general and those who were interested in education in particular because they were considered inferior to the male sex in every area except the skill of raising children and preparing dinner. This mistaken and dark perception did not escape the members of Jermaine's family, especially her father who forbade her to engage in studies completely and from time to time did not spare her his arm and his harsh words, but her desire to prove that a woman can also climb high on the intellectual scale pushed her to do two actions which actually formed the basis of her enormous success in the years that followed - completely independently, little Sophie was studying Latin and Greek on Burin, which were at that time the official languages ​​in which the scientific articles were published, as well as studying the mathematical writings of Newton and Euler day and night. Her parents, who discovered that their disobedient daughter was trying to appropriate the act of "thinking" that was the property of men only, decided against it with great fury to appropriate from her private room the oil lamps that spread light, the wood used as fuel in the fireplace and even her clothes;

And so, while her parents slept, Sophie would wrestle with the dirt from the feet of the giants of humanity mentioned above while covering herself with a thick blanket and a small candle burning in her frozen room, changing and crushing and again changing and again crushing. At some point the fantastic abilities of this strange girl could not be ignored and her parents decided to relieve their stress; Jermaine, who never married or obtained an official degree, was granted protection over the years in the shadow of her father's livelihood while working hard on her studies and research. Germaine used to receive at a certain point detailed records of lectures from the most important institution for mathematics in France (and possibly also in the world at that time) - "Polytechnique". At the end of one of these lectures, she sent an article to the review of Lagrange, the giants of mathematics for generations and hela, after a comprehensive examination, was left speechless at the originality and genius that was reflected in the written things. Lagrange was another writer of the article but without success because the pen name she used was - Mr. M. to blank When he found out that it was actually a woman, his astonishment grew even more and he decided to take her under his financial and professional protection, but unfortunately the study process was not organized and therefore she never received an official degree. Later on, she began corresponding with another mathematical genius named Legendre while correcting and expanding on areas of his important book that dealt with number theory. This correspondence quickly turned into a fruitful collaboration and Xander included many of her words in a revised version of the book. The full letters were compiled into her main book - the philosophical studies of Sophie Jermyn.

But her most important connection with her research colleagues occurred when she was 28; At that time it was accepted that the most important figure in the world of science in general and mathematics in particular was the lifter Carl Friedrich Gauss (Carl Friedrich Gauss) and she began corresponding with him with her previous signature accompanying the end of each letter - M. Leblanc. After asserting the writer's genius in the field of number theory, Gauss began to tie crowns to his head and was praised by his colleagues through correspondence that he conducted frequently. The fact of the female identity of the writer whom Gauss adored became known to him only when his life was in danger as a result of the French occupation of the town of Braunschweig where he lived; Jermyn, who was afraid of a repetition of Archimedes' case, managed to contact the commander of the local occupation forces who was a close friend of her father and convinced him to spare his life. When Gauss realized that his life was saved thanks to a woman he had known as a man, he was grateful and his admiration for her grew immeasurably. During the work with Gauss, it is worth noting that the main findings that arose from her work are the development of a theory known today as the Jermyn theory, as well as the most significant leap on the way to the solution of Fermat's last theory (a famous and wonderful story in itself that I will expand on in another article).

Her concern for her colleagues did not end here and in a letter to her friend the mathematician Livery asked for his help in assistingEverest visible (Evariste Galois) who was at that time in severe depression, her words were: "Fourier's death was too much for this guy. This Galois is brash but you can clearly see that he is a smart man. All these problems and others caused him to be suspended from the "Normal" and everyone says he will go crazy at some point, I'm really afraid that's true."

The year 1808 marked an important path for Jermin - a famous German physicist visited Paris and presented one of the most difficult and important problems in a scientific field called elasticity, that is, the mathematical study of all kinds of "folded" surfaces, to the best minds as a competitive challenge bearing prizes. Most mathematicians did not attempt to approach the problem at all because Lagrange claimed that current mathematics could not describe and solve problems of this type but Jermyn fell into the web of the problem and devoted the following decade to researching the field of elasticity and solving the problem. It seems that this challenge discouraged the scientists so much that Jermaine was the only candidate who participated in the competition and yet her article did not win the competition, this is because according to the judges her solution was not based on physical theories and also factually she did not have sufficient mathematical tools at her disposal for this solution.

The competition was supposed to end at the end of two years from the moment of the starting point but was extended by another two years. Again, Jermaine was the only one to submit an article to the judges and even now she did not manage to win the prestigious award but since her invention and her contribution to this field were so significant she was awarded a commendation. Jermaine did not give up and tried to win for the third time and although there were a few small problems left in the mathematical calculations she won the prize which was made of a one kilogram gold statue. Although it was a meteoric advance in terms of Jermaine's career, she decided not to come to the award ceremony because, in her opinion, the remaining inaccuracies caused the judges to look down on her work (even though they announced her win) and because the world of science did not properly evaluate the research findings. The reason for her concerns was mainly rooted in the disdain of a very important mathematician at that time - Poisson, who ignored her and her words as if she were a negligible mathematician. Excellent research and findings that she came up with a few years later were sent by her to win the major mathematical prize in France and here too Poisson, who served as a judge and another famous mathematician named Laplace simply ignored her paper and she never won the prize.

In 1829, Jermaine fell ill with breast cancer, but this reason, as well as problems that arose following the difficult revolutionary battles around her in 1830, did not prevent her from continuing to write and disrupt the world of mathematics and physics, with a number of articles that were important turning points and milestones in these sciences.

Cancer succumbed to this wonderful woman in 1831. Although already at that time her name was famous throughout Europe as one of the most important figures in the world of science, not a single word describing her work and contribution to humanity was mentioned on her grave other than the laconic and disparaging title - "owner of property".

On the same topic on the science website

22 תגובות

  1. Women are a superior race, which has been abandoned over the generations, out of ignorance.

  2. How much hate, you're really sick, but at least you're still alive and that's a point to the credit of the men you've met, because with such an attitude on your part, I wouldn't be surprised...

  3. I love and appreciate women so much that even the sickening example of how sickly you hate me won't change how I feel

  4. how much hate

    How many men have you met in your life, that you have statistical information what do most of them think?
    How many men do you think support the horrible acts you describe?

    It seems you've only met a few men, and I don't want to think what the few you've met have done to you, so much so that you're filled with sick hatred for all the male species on earth.

  5. Oh, and if you noticed, at least you didn't deny that it was all true.

    After all, if you claim that female genital mutilation in many cultures is a lie - you will think yourself retarded.
    If you claim that foot binding in certain cultures is a lie - even then you will be considered ignorant and retarded.
    If you claim that stoning a woman who is suspected of infidelity is a lie - even then you will testify to yourselves as complete morons,
    And so on..

    All you have left is the trivial argument "you need help" etc.

  6. The greatest help is a world full of goodness, compassion, love, charm, grace, romance, freedom, permissiveness, hatred of evil and its destruction.

    Nothing else will help like loving the good and hating the bad.
    But you (most men) oppose any moral idea and love evil, war, the holocaust, destruction, violence, hatred, burka, severed limbs. It probably gives you a drive.
    Too bad:(

  7. Some hate:
    I tried to measure how much hate you have but all the measuring devices broke.

  8. The nickname you chose is perfect for you.

    You obviously need help, and the sooner the better. Unfortunately this site cannot help you with that.

  9. But of course you are motivated by logic and you are the right one.
    To each his own truth, Devek, it is clear that what motivates you is feelings of inferiority.

    No!! It is not a fact at all that man will disappear from the world and no trace of him will remain :)) keep believing.
    Your screwed up development is obvious.

    Every once in a while some new intellectual comes up who tries to challenge our femininity, values, morals
    and the cultural Each according to his own method, each according to the technique he chooses. in robbery,
    In killing, in murder, in rape, in exile, in extermination, in gassing, in burning, in burning, in hanging, in stoning, in burial alive, burning a widow, binding the feet, disc in the skin, cutting the genital organ and in rewriting
    Millions of years, and we're still here. Millions of years have passed and we still continue to adhere
    In our free life and high morals. In such and other holocausts there is one connecting line and that is men's hatred of women and their shocking threat to women, their sense of inferiority is seen throughout history by violent attacks against women and especially against successful women.
    Everyone in turn tries their luck to destroy our soul, to turn my magnificent body into a sick and dead childbirth machine.

    You won't succeed even if you write a million more books. You will not succeed even if you rebuild
    the gas chambers. You will not succeed even if you send millions of chauvinists to comment on the Internet. You won't succeed because
    Many before you have tried and failed for millions of years. They succeeded at that moment in enjoying their horrors, but they are all dead and a feminist awakening will rise again and live forever, show you everywhere how inferior you are and especially the monotheistic groups that brought us the shocking patriarchy that destroyed and destroyed the world..

    A woman for her body, for her strength, for her individuality, for her beauty, for her aesthetics, for her amazing melody, for her delicacy, for her deep wisdom, for her empathy, for her superiority - forever!

    Men = autistic, retarded and psychopaths in large quantities, come to the garbage, look for food in the bins with the cats.

    All wars and all cruel acts are because of men's jealousy of women and their illusory sense of threat from them.
    All these wars are to preserve one religion or another that will oppress women and reduce them to such a level where men will seemingly feel good at last, but it will never end, they will always feel feelings of inferiority and will never want to stop oppressing women in the name of religion and in the name of anything else.
    All their wars and attacks stem from the desire to preserve laws that will cause women suffering and men pleasure.

  10. Some hate:
    Before you responded, there was one inappropriate response here, but a response that is truly full of hatred (much more than all the others combined) - hatred that is willing to sacrifice the truth on its altar - was your response.
    I see no point in even starting to argue about the "factual" claims you made because it is clear that logic is not what motivates you.

  11. How much hatred there is in men, like the concerned citizen.

    They don't destroy everything, they are the only ones who fix everything.

    Almost every man has a problem with the idea of ​​a better world and what pleases him is a world full of rape, corruption, ignorance, suffering - so that he can feel good about himself.

    You will never see hatred for cruel men who murder, rape and destroy, destroy nations and rape children for decades. The only hate you will see in the internet comments is hate for the word feminism or for a woman who dares to talk about rape, prostitution, science or anything else.

    Most men have feelings of inferiority so enormous that a moral person could never imagine.

    If you need all your life to be concerned with diminishing the other (the nobler, higher and more moral than you) it means that you are zero in astronomical amounts.

    Valiran, it is strange that you compare the achievements of Jews with Muslims.
    After all, the great majority of Muslims in the world do not have access to these areas.
    It is impossible to talk about the largest hairdresser in the population and not mention that only a minority of them are engaged in it.

    To properly compare groups, it is best to at least study groups with similar conditions as possible.
    For example, men who take care of children full-time compared to such women in the same field.
    Muslims and Jews who work in the same laboratory..
    And so on.. There is no lack of indicators for comparing the conditions of the compared.

    By the way, it has been proven that as soon as a group is aware of the fact that it actually achieves (history) less good results in a certain area - it continues the sequence of failures.

    Concerned citizen, if you understood evolution - you would know that your unbridled nerves, like those of billions of other men in the world (and for what.. BSA on what hahaha!!) are a direct result of a threat from women and a threat from the reproductive sexual war on women. As soon as there is They have financial conditions, there is simply no point in being with a man and all you want is to make them be in a situation where they will need an artificial creation like you... even though by nature you are a man - you are of no use.
    You are also threatened, because you have a hysterical desire to spread the seed and bring children into the world, while women - as much as they are smarter - have no such need. In short, an existential fear of the end of the human age.
    What to do in patriarchal or feminist societies less children are born and there is no such thing as "husband" or "marriage" and other disgusting patriarchal inventions.
    95% of men have no benefit while 100% of women have benefit.
    80% of the men have mild to severe retardation, autism and other neurological developmental problems, and if not then they are psychopaths murdering rapists or both.
    The minority that invents technology for us also has severe autistic developmental problems and precisely because of this is able to concentrate on one thing (with determination and ambition) for so many years, on the other hand the other animals have been managing for millions of years without this technology and that person is just like them will disappear from the world one day and even One will not remember his inventions.

    There are millions of comments like yours, citizen, every site celebrates chauvinism.
    Think of something more original

    Valiran, important article.
    But it is not clear where to obtain more material about her or other women who have disappeared from the pages of history. sad

  12. A clear majority in relation to a part of the population. There are probably many more Christians, but divide the number of their winners by their share in the world's population and you will see the huge difference between Jews and the other religions.
    In economics the absolute majority are Jews (I checked), in physics and chemistry the Jews star both numerically and in terms of the achievements and contribution to science for which they won the prize, and it can easily be said that they are at the top (Einstein, Bohr, Born, Landau, etc.).
    The Jews have also gained significant momentum in the field of mathematics in the last 100 years, and we have had world giants such as Von-Neumann, Ardash, and of course Perlman who stand in the same line as the great mathematicians I have written about so far.
    But we are not necessarily dealing with the Jews, but with any group of people who were rejected and oppressed just because they were physically weaker than another group. The Jews is probably the best example considering the historical circumstances.

  13. A clear majority of Nobel Prize recipients? (and sages, of course)
    Depends on how you look at it.
    I think 27% are Jewish, which is certainly impressive.

  14. Thank you Avi.

    Loves women: the opposite sex is a general expression for a variety of rejected people in society, not necessarily women, but also the poor, children, those with a different political opinion or skin color. Note the previous articles I brought, especially the one about the Italian mathematician Tartaglia.

    In my opinion, the best example is the oppression of the Jews, especially from an academic point of view. I know it will sound a little politically incorrect, but you can't argue with numbers: the Jews make up a clear majority of Nobel Prize recipients and world scholars and are a total of 0.2 percent of the world's population, while Muslims include more than a billion individuals and you can easily count the Nobel Prize winners on one hand Among them (which won prizes for peace and not for research that requires some kind of superior intelligence).
    We have achieved all this in less than 100 years, just think where we would have reached if for about 1500 years the other nations would have thought that we were drinking the blood of children and allowing our ancestors to learn and develop as one human being.
    The same also applies to women, blacks, disabled / disabled, etc. That is how important the right to equality is. The Greeks in their golden age advocated that there were levels of people in their cities, meaning people of type A who were men, type B who were women and type C who were slaves. All this was done while Aristotle was walking among them and laying down the pillars of the celebrated Western philosophy. The Indians do the same to this day who always talk to us about giving and love, but with most of them there are ranks of people, can't believe it huh? The same Indians who discovered Nirvana and the rest of the nonsense they talk about advocate castes. For them, those who are born poor must remain poor because that's how fate wanted it, they have no right to advance. The situation is probably much worse in Muslim countries where intelligence seems to be a foreign word and that is why they are where they are today.

    And lest they say I'm a racist or something similar - even with the Jews, this problem existed for a long time, especially with regard to women, but probably much less than in the examples I mentioned. Luckily for us, smart enough people have risen up to say - gentlemen, equality is not only an ideal but something that is important to us as humans no matter where we are and who the individuals are that make up society.

  15. The topic is interesting - but how much "active feminism" can Liran Zeidman include in one article?
    And especially the opener.
    You exaggerate a bit...

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