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The history of cloning: the first was a frog

In 1962, frogs were cloned, but it took a long time before they were able to apply it to other animals

1962 Developmental biologist John Gardon clones frogs using cells taken from a frog's intestine, applying the principle of cloning for the first time. Although it was a success, years later scientists continued to express doubts about the feasibility of cloning in other species as well.

1978 The first test tube baby, Louise Brown, was born. The new technology is causing a storm and moral and religious dilemmas around the world. Decades later, the in vitro fertilization method will be used to return cloned embryos to the womb of a surrogate mother, who carries them until the end of the pregnancy.

1978 The movie "The Boys from Brazil" is released. The film describes how Nazis who immigrated to South America use cloning to create a "pure race".

1986 Over 100 cows are cloned using cells taken from week-old cow embryos.

Beginning of 1997 Dolly - the first mammal cloned from the cell of an adult animal - is released to the world. The scientists who produced it are Dr. Ian Wilmot and Dr. Keith Campbell, from the Roslin Institute in Scotland. The announcement of her birth raises hopes that cloning technology can be used to develop new ways of healing, and to develop herds of elite farm animals.

End of 1997 Dolly's clans create Polly, a cloned sheep carrying a human gene in her body cells. The gene is responsible for creating a protein that is missing in the body of hemophiliacs. Dr. Wilmot says that it may be possible to use similar animals for the production of proteins on a large scale, by extracting it from the milk of the animals.

1998 A scientist from the University of Hawaii creates three generations of cloned mice.

2000-1999 Scientists succeed in cloning pigs, monkeys, cows and even an endangered goat.

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