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Genesis was empty - how was our universe created? - Part a'

We recently received the first experimental confirmation that the universe underwent an accelerated expansion a fraction of a second after the Big Bang and further confirmation of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Thus we are one step closer towards a complete understanding of our universe and how it was created. Welcome to a brief history of the universe

the expanding universe. Illustration: from Wikipedia
the expanding universe. Illustration: from Wikipedia

On Monday, March 17.3.14, XNUMX, at a quarter to five Israel time, a press conference held by a group of researchers from Harvard University was broadcast to announce First experimental confirmation of gravitational waves and the theory of the inflationary universe. This is the first direct confirmation that the universe underwent an accelerated expansion a fraction of a second after the big bang, about 13.8 billion years ago. If other laboratories succeed in repeating these dramatic results, it will be possible to crown this discovery as equally important as the discovery of the Higgs particle (known as the God particle) which was discovered in July 2013. Needless to say, in such a case, the Nobel Prize would also be awarded to this group of researchers.

So what is so important about this discovery?

With the help of physics we try to understand what is the reality we live in. Little by little we reveal the fundamental laws of nature that created reality and the universe around us and according to which they are conducted. As Albert Einstein expressed it "I want to know how God created this world... I want to know what the Creator thought, the rest are details".

Einstein did not believe in an intervening God, one who cares about what we do, nor in an infinitely intelligent being. For him, God is an inclusive name for the entire universe and all the laws of nature, as well as for the mystery and sublimity he felt when he explored the infinite. Sublimity that we can only try and touch with our finite minds. And truly, when we investigate what reality is, we discover mechanistic laws of nature, without the need for any intelligent intervention. We also discover how much stranger reality is than any human imagination and invention. The more one investigates the laws of nature more deeply, the more mysterious and illusory things become, just as if our daily lives do not at all reflect the real reality we are in. Like people living in a cave and thinking that it is the whole world and the moment they dare to step out of the cave, they discover a new and strange world that they were unaware of, a world that surrounded the cave and created it. This is how we expand, with the help of physics and science, its reality and get out of the cave of our day-to-day life towards the true reality we live in and from which we were created.

This sublimity that Einstein spoke of is expressed not only in the journey down the rabbit hole to the depths of the mysteries that fly us but also in the revelation of the harmony and beauty that prevails between the laws of nature. Such beauty will be expressed, for example, in the theory of everything. Many physicists assume that at the base we will discover a theory that will unite all matter and energy, the forces of nature and the laws of nature into one essence that is governed by one complete theory - the theory of everything. So far in our physical journey, the findings seem to support that there is indeed such a unifying theory. We still don't know what it is, but there is already enormous progress and wonderful insights into what such a theory should entail. As I explained in the Higgs Fields Forever post - in search of divine symmetry this harmony is described by symmetries. We find that symmetries of various kinds are laid at the base of the laws of nature and thanks to them and thanks to the breaking of these symmetries the universe appears as we see it and not otherwise.

Both the discovery of the Higgs particle about a year ago and the discovery of gravitational waves and the confirmation of the inflationary universe theory about which we were informed about two weeks ago, are particularly important because they bring us another step closer to the vision of the theory of everything. While the discovery of the Higgs particle gave further confirmation to our theories regarding the particles of matter and the various forces in nature, the current discovery gives us further confirmation to Einstein's theory of general relativity and advances us towards an understanding of how our universe, with all the matter and energy in it, was created and developed. It also moves us towards solving other interesting questions about our reality such as whether we are the only universe or whether it is just one universe out of many others. We still don't know the answer to this intriguing question, but the current confirmation provides a hint that there may be many more universes.

How was the universe created?

We are at a fairly advanced stage in terms of physics and already have a pretty good idea of ​​the creation of our universe. We can even offer an explanation of how something was created out of nothing. This is only a preliminary theory that will no doubt change as we understand more, but we already have hints of what the real theory should look like:

In the beginning there was nothing. was empty

Now it is necessary to become familiar with quantum theory (and the field theory that includes and unites it with special relativity). With the help of this theory we explain and predict the behavior of the elementary particles that make up the atoms and the matter and forces in the universe. For our purposes it is important to know that one of the insights of quantum theory is a law of nature called the principle of non-recognition. according to which particles have no properties until they are measured (called the Copenhagen interpretation). For example, until we measure the position of the particle, it will not have one location and will be "spread" over all possible locations. This is a strange situation that we do not know from everyday life, but this is how the elementary particles that build us behave. There is an effect that the particle is in all possible positions until it is measured and we are able to measure these effects. This is how this strange property of the particles was confirmed in the experiments. According to the uncertainty principle, not only does a particle have no properties as long as no physical forces have been applied to it that measure these properties, but also that when measuring certain properties of a particle such as its position and speed, it is impossible to measure these two properties at once. Either a particle has a position or a particle has a velocity. Unlike our everyday life, a particle does not have both position and velocity at the same time. If we nevertheless try to measure these two properties, we can arrive at an approximate position and velocity of the particle. We will have uncertainty in its location and uncertainty in its speed. In such a situation the particle itself does not have an exact position and an exact speed and these properties are "winded" in a certain area and it "jumps" between all these different possibilities. A similar uncertainty also exists between the properties of energy and time. If, for example, we measure exact time with a "quantum clock" made of a pulsating particle, we will not know at all at what energy the particle pulsates and the particle will have many energy states.

This uncertainty means that there is no such thing as a void. Even when there is nothing and we measure an empty state, the inherent uncertainty in the universe about energy means that there is no such thing as an absolute zero of energy. Vacuum is not really empty and has a small amount of energy in it. Because of this uncertainty in energy, particles will be created from the void and immediately disappear back into it. Thus, out of the primordial void, energy and particles were created and immediately returned to the void. Our universe was created in a rare event where a lot of energy came out of the void. It seems that before this energy had time to disappear back into the void, because the energy density was so great, it went through a special process that could resemble an explosion. This is the big bang.

In the beginning there was nothing. was empty
A ripple of energy appeared from the void,
the big Bang

Nir Lahav (as Albert Einstein) explains the expansion of the universe using a balloon

So far we have talked about speculation. We still don't know what happened before the big bang, but the uncertainty principle gives us a hint of what a future theory that does explain it will look like. On the other hand, from the big bang stage we have a well-established theory that we were able to test with the help of many experiments and that explains the entire evolution of the universe up to the present day. This theory is called the standard cosmological model (or by its official name Lambda-CDM) and it is the one that has now been confirmed in another experiment. It is amazing to me that we can propose theories about the creation of our universe that happened 13.8 billion years ago and still think of sophisticated experiments and manage to confirm with their help our theories about events that happened so long ago. This is the great power of physics and science in general, which is able to take theories and check whether they are true or not even if they are events that happened billions of years ago or events that take place at vast distances of billions of light years or at distances smaller than a trillion meters.

The cause of the Big Bang is unknown to us. At the time of the Big Bang the entire visible universe was the size of a dot. In other words, all the matter and energy that is currently in the universe that we are able to see (which is 138,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 km) has been compressed into a dimensionless point. The energy density at such a point is infinite and we have no idea how to deal with such magnitudes. We call such a point a singular point and that is where the laws of physics we know take place. Einstein's theory of general relativity predicted two cases where there are such singularities, one at the moment of the big bang and the other at the center of a black hole. It is interesting to note that because of the singularity of the singular point Einstein did not believe these mathematical results. He didn't think, for example, that black holes really exist in the universe. Nevertheless, it turns out that mathematics and theory are stronger than their creator and in the sixties we found both strong evidence for the existence of black holes and strong confirmations that there was a big bang. Today physicists suspect that such cases with infinite sizes like the singular points are a hint that the current theory is incomplete and in a future theory that will expand the theory of relativity we will know how to behave in such extreme cases as prevailed in the big bang or in the center of black holes and these infinities will disappear.

In the Big Bang, our universe as we know it began, with the laws of nature known to us today. The Big Bang is not a simple explosion of matter into space. Space and time were created in the big bang. The four dimensions that exist in our universe were created - length, width, height and time. Before the big bang there was no space that we could move through as we know it and there was no time. There was no past, present and future as we know it. Therefore, it is meaningless to ask what was outside the Big Bang, because there were no spatial dimensions to define outside and inside, and it is also meaningless to ask what was before the Big Bang, because there was no time yet and there was no past to define what 'before' was. With the Big Bang, space and time as we know them were created and began to expand. You can think of it like exploding a mine in space. The pieces of the mine are flying everywhere from the force of the explosion and will continue to move at an equal speed away from the point of the explosion as time passes until something, like a star, gets in their way. So even after the Big Bang our space and time began to expand and have continued to do so ever since. Where do space and time spread? Again, this question has no meaning because all the space we know and to which we can move is the one that spreads into a dimensionless void, void of space and time. The best way to visualize this is with a balloon on which the stars and galaxies are drawn. This balloon is the universe and the rubber of the balloon is the space-time itself on which all the matter in the universe is drawn. Inflating the balloon represents the expansion of space and time. Regarding all the material, the stars and galaxies drawn on the balloon have no meaning to the world around the balloon. All they know is the balloon rubber. This is their world and the dimensions in which they can move. In a similar way we are also "drawn" on the space-time and can only move within it without the possibility of knowing what is beyond it.

At the time of the big bang, the space and time we live in were created. This space-time began to expand following the big bang. There is no meaning to the question of what is outside space-time because it is he who defines "outside" and "inside" so that only within him is meaning for distances and times. One can think of space-time as the infrastructure or matrix in which we live. It is an existing and dynamic matrix that spreads.

In the following parts of the article, we will give you an expansion on the breaking of the symmetry and the circumstances that led to the formation of the material.

Author's note:

This coming June, Nir Lahav is planning lectures on this topic as part of the series I am giving at cinemateks across the country, the science and reality research series (in the month of April, the lecture will be at the end of Holocaust Day on the topic of Is Man's Nature Bad From His Youth?) Please follow the blog posts free and happy.



More of the topic in Hayadan:


29 תגובות

  1. In the beginning there was an infinite space full of energy, and full of passive time, which is absolute rest and absolute cold.
    The active time known to all of us does not exist in physical reality, and it was invented by man in order to orient himself in physical reality.

    The creation of the cluster of stars known as the Universe.
    From combining quantities of passive time and energy the material of the stars is created.
    Matter is a physical form, and is not a quantitative concept, and has no gravitational force.

    If a cyclic form is formed from a quantity of closed length, containing a quantity of area,
    So a physical form is created by combining amounts of passive time and energy.

    Gold, carbon, hydrogen, are physical forms.

    More details in the book

    A. Asbar

  2. To claim that the beginning was empty, "it was empty" - is a literal interpretation. paradox.
    And also: nothing can be created from nothing, there is, there is. A void is an absolute void, and there is no creation, creation, existence, there is matter in it.
    If the universe does exist (?), then the necessity is that it has always been always, and has no beginning. Because beginning means: absolute emptiness.
    But emptiness cannot and does not create its absolute opposite: there is, there is.
    We, human beings, do not have the mental power to grasp the existing, the universe, its nature in itself, and what it means to be, to exist.
    But, if the existing exists, then it is necessary that it has always existed, in one material (and energetic) state or another, but eternal is the existing, the material, the energy. The scientific "vacuum" is not really empty (ultimate), it is a so-called "empty", human, relative, but not
    Absolute, and not real in the philosophical sense of the term.
    Therefore, the existing, the universe, itself was never created, it exists "since and forever", always, and has no beginning, and it will never end. The trouble is that the people of empirical science, pretend to know what they don't know and will never be able to know the truth, but they dress up in the hat of an ill-advised, pretentious and inappropriate scholar (one of them was the British Hopkins).
    There is a barrier that, due to our being human beings, we will never be able to cross it, in deciphering the secret of the universe, that exists!

  3. I am not convinced by all these theories and guesses as to how the world was created.
    Humans are limited in their intelligence and perception.
    We have concepts of material time and age, how exactly will we know how the universe was really created if it is not given
    prove logical? It's all speculation.
    What was before a gravitational singularity How and why did the universe form? What caused the big bang?
    How was man, animals and the rest of the wonderful nature created?
    We will never know, we can only remain in such and other theories.
    And with all due respect to all scientists, they are also mentally limited because they are made of matter and matter is limited.
    There is a creator of this world and the Torah is truth.

  4. Nonsense, don't take the Rambam's words now about God being outside the laws of physics and paste them now into science... there is no and there will be no answer to science how the first dot was created, and let it be even the smallest. A dot. End of verse! God is not their God. Where did you come from? From what kind of grain

  5. My theory says that it does not come from nothing, meaning that all the energy that is in our universe today existed in another universe and was compressed inside a black hole from that universe to the state of a singular point that exploded and created a new universe that we are in at this time.
    It's like two cones that are connected at the bottom and the meeting point is the point of the big bang when one cone disappears and a cone is created. Two is created.

  6. If you compare a singular point of the beginning of the universe to a singular point of a black hole - how do you explain the expansion of the singular point of the universe? Is such a thing physically possible even for a black guy?

  7. "Because all the space we know and into which we can move is the one that spreads into a dimensionless void, void of space and time"

    This unnecessary speculation causes this relatively well-written article to sound really amateurish, the use of the word empty is problematic and to say that the space we know and to which we can move is the one that spreads into a flying spaghetti monster is equivalent to what you said.

  8. Joseph
    In my opinion - it is much more important to "respect your children". It's the opposite of "produce and multiply and destroy the land"...
    A direct result of this will be respecting the parents (not that it matters at all to me).
    If God respected his children the world would look different, wouldn't it? 🙂

  9. Take down the first two commandments. I meant you shall not murder, you shall not covet, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not answer your neighbor to the point of lying
    , honor your father and your mother and more.

  10. Joseph
    On the one hand you say that everything you say has nothing to do with the existence/non-existence of God. On the other hand, you must observe the Ten Commandments. There is no contradiction here, of course, but keeping the first commandments disqualifies people like me...

  11. In my opinion, we don't know exactly how something was created from nothing.
    Although according to quantum theory, equal amounts of particle and antiparticle can be created simultaneously from nothing, but this means that they can "enter" the space we call our universe, which is the one that was created from the big bang (ours) and we can see it, because it spreads slower than the speed of light , or to be created out of nothing. That is, "to enter" or "to be created" are both allowed by the equations.
    Hawking has already raised the idea that the matter comes from parallel locations and the reference is not to hypothetical universes but to actual universes like ours. He bases it on fundamental laws of physics that are even more "ancient" (==fundamental) than forces.
    Laws of entropy and non-entropy and violations of theories such as even quantum theory if it is not assumed that there are additional universes. The principle of Ockham's razor in this case does not necessarily mean that the formation of existence is no less complex than the existence of existence.
    Unlike the explanation of forces in antiquity by the existence of gods, which is like saying that God exists except that it comes from a parallel location. It is not more complicated to claim that just as there is time-distance with us, there is some kind of space outside of our universe because it is there. And the beginning of our universe is not necessarily the beginning of space-time. If we discover fundamental mathematical laws that mean there is no reason why there should not be other universes then it is simpler to assume that we are a visible universe and that there is another universe around us.

    I tend to agree, I also came to the conclusion that there was a time when the speed of expansion was greater than the speed of light, and I am not Einstein. And by the way, it has nothing to do with the existence or non-existence of God.
    I tend to believe in God, but I accept that none of this is related to his existence/non-existence, as long as we all agree that we must live according to basic morality even in his absence, and that not everything is a point of view, and there is no absolute truth, but there are also multiple points of view and it helps to understand a truth beyond sufficiency . That is, we agree to the ten commandments even in the absence of a fear-inducing factor like God, because breaking them is the self-destruction of our cultures.

  12. From what is written it follows that time and space are not among the basic laws of nature such as the principle of uncertainty. We live in a kind of phenomenon created by chance.

  13. point
    great, thanks. Read. In the paragraph before the one you quoted, he says plainly that he does not believe in a "personal" God. In the paragraph you quote, he says (my translation) "The deep feeling that there is a supreme intelligent power is what I call God". That is - and this is my interpretation of his words - "God" for Einstein is an inner feeling that stems from the lack of understanding to understand the universe. It also fits the previous paragraph of the article, and a lot of other things he said.

    In general, the debate about Einstein's faith is not related to the existence of this or that god. His words are not clear and it is really not clear what exactly he believed.

    All I know is what I believe 🙂

  14. I can't understand why every time bring in the matter of Einstein's faith and then talk about it. It may matter to Israel Shapira, but it is not really relevant to anything. Be a pantheist, Spinoza's God, an agnostic, what does it matter? Does the fact that he was - X prove the correctness of the X?

    By the way, such a description of the formation of the universe as a quantum event does not seem to me to be ex-nehilo (Jewish mythology) but rather a formation out of chaos (Greek mythology for example) because emptiness is not really "nothing"

    b b b b
    The question has no meaning since time (the concept itself) was created only after the big bang. Although the Hebrew makes it possible to formulate such a sentence, if the theory is correct, then this question makes just as much sense as the question of what the color blue is thinking about.

  15. Gershi
    Imagine a giant collapsing star. The smaller the radius, the faster the escape speed. At a certain radius (called the Schwarzchild radius) the escape velocity equals the speed of light. The star does not stop at this radius but continues to collapse. But - everything that enters into this radius, cannot leave, therefore we will see a "black hole" with a fixed radius. The star itself collapses to a point, because we don't know of any mechanism that would prevent this.

    A black hole attracts everything in its vicinity, including other black holes. Therefore - if we have 2 close holes, they will eventually become one hole. The "radius" of the hole will increase, because of the added mass, but all the mass is still concentrated at one point in the center.

  16. Miracles
    As far as I know, a black hole is not a singular point. Although the theory says that there is a singular point in the center of a black hole, but black holes exist in different sizes, according to my understanding.

  17. Gershi
    A black hole is exactly a singular point 🙂
    Think about it that if the beginning is not a point - then it is probably a ball with a certain radius, with a huge mass. In this situation, it makes sense that this ball will collapse into a black hole - that is, a singular point.

  18. Miracles
    I have no argument with you that the speed of expansion of space is directly proportional to distance.
    But how does that get you to a singular point?
    After all, not everything that spreads necessarily starts from a singular point.
    What contradicts my assumption (I'm humble..:)) that indeed the universe, as we know it, started with a big bang, but the bang didn't start from a singular point but from a much bigger body. For example a number of black super holes that have exploded.

  19. point
    I would love to see the source of your quote. I actually found another quote in the New York Times:

    It seems to me that the idea of ​​a personal God is an anthropological concept which I cannot take seriously. I also cannot imagine some will or goal outside the human sphere

    November, 1930

  20. Gershi
    The whole point of the big bang theory is that our universe started at a singular point. This is a direct conclusion from the fact that the speed of the expansion of space is directly proportional to the distance (approximately).

    This is not a matter of knowledge - this is a conclusion based on observations, and on a theory that explains the observations.

  21. point
    Einstein in his handwriting:
    the word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honorable but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish.”

    The letter, in German, was sent in January 1954 to the philosopher Eric Gutkind.

  22. Hi Nir,
    Without disputing the big bang theory, how do we know that the big bang started from a singular point?

  23. and for his own sake,
    There are some unclear things in the attempts at explanation you offer:
    1) On the one hand you say: "In the beginning there was emptiness" and on the other hand you claim that there is no such thing as emptiness and there is always energy there.
    2) You say that the universe expanded, but every child knows that things only expand into something. And just as one cannot talk about something outside the universe, so one cannot talk about the expansion of the universe. And in short, the attempt to explain was not successful in my opinion. It is impossible to describe something that expands into something that is nothing.
    3) You wrote that space and time were created in the big bang. The question is why assume they were created there and not simply say they always existed there
    4) The laws of physics, why are they the way they are at all
    5) It is true that: "The cause of the Big Bang is unknown to us", but from this it immediately follows that reasons that someone decides to believe in cannot be ruled out. That is, it is possible that the reason X that someone brings up is the real reason. Until proven otherwise.
    6) In the beginning there were the laws of quantum theory. Why don't you treat the laws as something? You can talk about uncertainty as something that happened at the time of the big bang. I mean the rules were there. So not only was there energy, there were also laws.

  24. Nir Lahav:
    "Einstein did not believe in an intervening God, one who cares about what we do, nor in an infinite intelligent being. For him, God is an inclusive name for the entire universe and all the laws of nature, as well as for the mystery and sublimity he felt when he explored the infinite."

    "My religion consists of submissive adoration for an unlimited supreme spirit, which reveals itself in the most insignificant details, which we are able to grasp in our fragile and weak minds. This deep conviction in the presence of a higher intelligent power, manifesting itself in a universe that cannot be understood, is my concept of God." ~ "The New York Times" newspaper, April 19, 1955

  25. Einstein's opinion of God as I know it is different from the one I know. There is an entire entry on Wikipedia titled exactly the question: Einstein believed in God. The answer is on one leg. is not an atheist but an agnostic - believes in something that he does not know but is not a personal God.

  26. "There is no meaning to the question of what is outside space-time"

    And how there is meaning!

    And the search for this meaning is the engine that drives the physicists... and even more so you believe in the Creator of the world.

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