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A woman lives longer than a man, but earns much less

This is according to a variety of studies published yesterday by the Central Bureau of Statistics on the occasion of Women's Day

Summary of studies

  • At the beginning of 2006, 2,572,200 women aged 15 and over lived in Israel.
  • Gender ratio: 106 women aged 15 and over to 100 men aged 15 and over.
  • About 920 thousand women are mothers of children up to the age of 17, of which 10% head a single-parent family.
  • The average age of a woman at first marriage - 24.5.
  • The average number of children a woman is expected to give birth to during her lifetime is 2.8 children per woman, almost double that of European women.
  • The participation rate of women aged 15 and over in the civilian workforce in Israel continues to rise steadily and reached 2006% in 50.4 (45.6% in 1996), compared to 61.1% among men in Israel.
  • In 2005, the hourly income of an employed woman was 37.4 NIS compared to the hourly income of a man - 44.9 NIS. That is, a woman's income was 83% of a man's income.
  • 46% of women defined their main activity as "work" in the year preceding the survey (2005), compared to 64% of men.
  • 20% of the women defined their main activity as "taking care of the home or family members" compared to only XNUMX% of the men.

The number of women and men

At the end of 2005, 2,572,200 women and 2,437,800 men aged 15 and over lived in Israel, a ratio of 106 women to 100 men.
The number of boys born each year is greater than the number of girls, so among the young there is an excess of males over females. From the age of 35 onwards the gender ratio reverses, there is an excess of women over men. This excess increases with age, due to the higher life expectancy of women (82.3).

Table 1. Female and male population by age and gender ratio, end of 2005 - thousands

age Men women number of women to100 Men
the entire population 3453.7 3537.0 102
+15 2437.8 2572.2 106
+65 295.8 397.3 134
+80 69.4 108.0 156

Available and available

The percentage of vacancies (singles, divorcees and widows) among the general population and among the "Jews and the others" from the age of 17 to 34 is lower than the percentage of vacancies. After this age the trend reverses and the percentage of vacancies is higher than the percentage of vacancies, with the gap increasing with increasing age. Among the Arabs, the attitude changes to be in favor of women as early as age 31 onwards.

Table 2. Percentage of vacancies by population and age groups, end of 2004

Total population
17-24 93.0 79.5 93.7 85.2 90.0 57.7 94.9 84.5
29-25 57.0 38.9 61.6 43.0 40.6 23.4 54.5 39.5
30-34 28.4 24.4 31.3 24.9 17.0 20.8 31.4 28.9
35-39 18.1 22.1 20.2 22.6 9.1 18.2 23.6 26.9
40-44 16.1 22.6 18.4 23.4 6.0 18.2 18.9 25.0
45-54 15.0 24.6 16.6 25.2 4.4 20.1 15.9 25.6
55-64 13.8 30.2 14.9 30.0 4.7 31.4 14.2 30.9
65-74 15.8 45.4 16.5 44.8 7.8 52.3 15.2 45.7
75-84 25.3 69.8 25.6 69.4 19.1 77.2 26.4 72.2
85+ 48.5 96.6 49.2 96.6 37.2 98.6 56.9 95.0

The reason for this phenomenon is that at young ages the percentage of vacancies is lower compared to men as a result of a lower age of marriage among women. With the increase in age, the trend reverses as a result of pressure in the marriage market (an imbalance between the sexes manifested in a lack of potential men for marriage) which causes women to remain single. Another factor is the higher life expectancy of women compared to men, which is expressed in a higher percentage of widows than widowers in the older ages.

Mothers of children

In 2005, about 923 thousand women (not including those living in institutions, kibbutzim and outside settlements) were mothers of children up to the age of 17. About 10% of them headed single-parent families. About 60% of the single mothers are divorced, 12% are widows, 13% are single and 15% are married living apart from their husbands. A higher percentage of Arab women are mothers of children up to the age of 17, compared to Jewish women (about 50% compared to 35%). Among the Jewish mothers, a higher percentage head single-parent families compared to the Arab mothers (about 11% and 4% respectively).

Marriage and fertility

Marriage in Israel, the average age at first marriage has been on a continuous rise since the 70s. In 1970, the average age at first marriage of Israeli women was 21.7, and in 2004 - 24.5 (lower than that of women in Europe by about 28 years). In first marriages, Jewish women are on average about 3 and a half years older than Muslim and Druze women, and about a year older than Christian women. From 1970 onwards, the largest change in the average age at first marriage was among Jewish women (an increase of 3.6 years) and the smallest among Muslim women (an increase of 1.7 years).

Table 3. Average age of the woman at the time of the first marriage, by religion and year

Woman's religion Average age of the womanat the time of the (first) marriage
(in years)
Jewish women


About 139.9 thousand women gave birth during 2005, about 1% less compared to 2004.
In Israel, the average number of children a woman is expected to give birth to during her lifetime (total fertility rate) is 2.8 (almost double the number of children a European woman is expected to give birth to -1.5).
For about a third (31.1%) of the women who gave birth in 2005, it was the first birth, similar to 2004 (31.4%). In 2005, the average age of women who gave birth to their first child was 26.6 (higher than the age of women resident in Eastern Europe such as Armenia 22.5, Romania 24.6 and Bulgaria 24.8, but lower than the age of women from Western Europe - Great Britain 27.5, the Netherlands 29.4 and Germany 29.7).

education level

In 2006, 14.5% of all women aged 18 and over had a bachelor's degree, compared to 11.9% of all men aged 18 and over.
7.9% of women had a master's degree, compared to 7.7% of men, and 0.7% of women had a third degree compared to 1.2% of men. For 24.1% of the women, the matriculation certificate was the highest educational certificate they received, compared to 21.3% of the men. 15.1% of women aged 18 and over graduated high school without a matriculation certificate, compared to 20.1% of men.
4.0% of women aged 18 and over did not study at all, compared to 1.8% of men.


The participation rate of women aged 15 and over in the civilian workforce in Israel continues to rise steadily and reached 2006% in 50.4 (45.6% in 1996), compared to 61.1% among men in Israel.
The percentage of unemployed women in the total workforce decreased from 9.5% in 2005 to 9.0% in 2006. The gap between women and men has narrowed, but it is still high - the percentage of unemployed men in 2006 dropped to 7.9% (compared to 8.5% in 2005).
61.5% of all employed women in 2006 usually worked full-time, and 38.3% worked part-time, among men, on the other hand, 86.5% of the employed usually worked full-time and 13.2% usually worked part-time. Of the women who worked part-time (less than 35 hours a week), 23.4% worked part-time involuntarily, meaning they were looking for full-time or additional work but could not find it. Of the men who usually worked part-time, 21.8% did so involuntarily.

According to occupations: the women continue to concentrate in traditional female occupations characterized by low wages. As in the past and in 2006, about half of the women are employed in six main occupations: "caregivers", "teaching workers in elementary schools and kindergartens and social guides", "secretarial workers" , "other clerks", "tail salesmen and models" and "cleaning workers in buildings, kitchen workers and laundry workers", in all of them, women make up over 70% of those employed in the trade. It should be noted that the same percentage of employed women is found in the same six manuals, even if in a different internal order, starting from 1988 until 2006.
Moreover, among clerical workers 75% are women, and among agents, sales workers and service workers 55% are women, in academic professions the percentage of women reaches 49% and among managers only 29% are women.
80.5 thousand women worked in high-tech in 2006 and they make up 32.9% of all those employed in high-tech.

91% of the employed women are employees and 7% are self-employed, employers or members of a cooperative, 83% of the employed men are employees and 16% are self-employed, employers or members of a cooperative.

The share of women among those employed through a personnel company (including personnel contractors who are not subcontractors), which usually offers employment conditions significantly inferior to those existing in direct employment, is higher than among all employees: 51% are employed through personnel companies of all those employed in this way. Compared to 49% rent of all employees, in 2006.
The share of women who despair of looking for work out of all those who despair in 2006, is low compared to the share of men: 41% compared to 59%. The number of women who gave up looking for work reached 2006 thousand in 22.3.

Mothers in single-parent families belong to the civilian labor force more than married mothers - 74.7% compared to 65.3%, but the percentage of employed among them is lower - 88.1%, compared to 93.1%, respectively, so the percentage of unemployed among mothers in single-parent families is higher than among married mothers – 11.9%, compared to 6.9%.


In 2005 the life expectancy of women in Israel was 82.3 years and of men 78.3 years. The life expectancy of Jewish women was 82.6 years and that of Arab women - 78.7. Among the men, the life expectancy of the Jews was 79.1 years and the Arabs - 75.0. Life expectancy increased from the end of the seventies to the beginning of the current decade (1975-1979 to 2000-2004) by 6.8 years among women and by 6.3 years among men.

Since the establishment of the state, life expectancy among women is higher than among men by 3.5 to 4 years. In the last decade, the gap in life expectancy between women and men has increased slightly, but it is still relatively small compared to the difference between women and men in industrialized countries (for example, the average gap in European Union countries is 6.2 years, and in the USA 5.8 years). The increase in the gap is due to the fact that in recent years the rate of decline in women's mortality is slightly higher than that of men.

In an international comparison of life expectancy at birth, women in Israel are ranked relatively high, but they are not among the leading countries in life expectancy, and this is compared to Israeli men who are in the group of countries with the highest life expectancy. In the report of the World Health Organization for 2006, which publishes data for 2004, the life expectancy of Israeli women is four years lower (rounded) than that of the leader - Japan (86 years). Women in Greece, Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, New Zealand and Singapore have a life expectancy similar to that of women in Israel. Israeli men have a life expectancy that is only one year lower than Japan (79 years), which is in first place. Men in Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy and Australia have a life expectancy similar to that of men in Israel.

Data from the "Combined Income Survey and Household Expenditure Survey" - 2005

Earned income: men versus women

Revenue graph at the end of 2005

In 2005, the average gross monthly income from hired work for a man was 8,575 NIS and for a woman 5,419 NIS per month. That is, a woman's income was 63% of a man's income.
Part of the gap in monthly income is explained by the fact that women work fewer hours per month on average than men.
(190.9 hours of work per month for a man compared to 144.8 hours of work per month for a woman).
The income per hour of work for an employed man in 2005 was 44.9 NIS per hour and for an employed woman 37.4 NIS per hour, that is, a woman's income was 83% of a man's income.

A high gap in the gross income per hour of work between women and men exists in "academic tradesmen". In 2005, a man "with an academic profession" earned NIS 74.2 per hour of work compared to NIS 57.4 per hour earned by a woman "with an academic profession" (the woman's income constitutes 77% of the man's income). The smallest gap in gross income per working hour exists in the occupation "unprofessional workers" a man in this occupation earned 24.9 NIS per hour of work compared to 21.3 NIS per hour of work for a woman (the woman's income is 86% of the man's income).

Table 4. Gross financial income of hired workers by marital status - 2005

not married married
Without children with 1 child with 2 children with +3 children Without children with 1 child with 2 children with +3 children
Gross monthly income (NIS) 4,286 4,875 5,007 5,126 5,915 5,925 6,202 5,842
for a working hour 29.6 35.0 35.1 39.6 39.5 40.0 42.8 43.1
Number of working hours per week 35.6 33.8 34.0 31.1 35.6 35.7 34.8 32.7

The monthly income of married women without children is 1.4 times greater than that of single women without children (5,915 NIS and 4,286 NIS respectively). As the number of children per woman increases, the number of hours she works per month decreases.

Expenditure for consumption in men's households and women's households3

A division into single households of men and single households of women shows that the expenditure for consumption in men's households is 6,649 NIS per month compared to 5,881 NIS per month in women's households.

The composition of expenses for consumption in a household of individuals - 2005

households of men
women's households
Total spending on consumption (NIS)
6,178 6,649 5,881
Composition of consumption expenditure in percentages
100.0 100.0 100.0
Food (including vegetables and fruits)
13.9 13.9 13.9
31.8 28.6 34.0
Apartment maintenance
10.2 8.9 11.1
Furniture and home equipment
3.3 3.3 3.3
Clothing and footwear
2.5 2.3 2.7
6.6 4.7 8.0
Education, culture and entertainment
9.7 10.9 8.9
transportation and communication
17.2 23.1 13.0
Other products and services
4.8 4.2 5.2


Women make up 10% of all criminals - 12% in the Jewish and other population and 5% in the Arab population.
In cheating crimes, the relative share of women is 18% - the highest relative share among all types of crimes.
With increasing age, the share of women among the criminals increases - 7% of criminals up to the age of 29, 10% of those aged 30-39, 13% of those aged 40-59, and 17% of those aged 60 and over.
Among new criminals (who were convicted of a first offense), the share of women is 16%, compared to 5% among habitual criminals (criminals who have been convicted in the past).


Data from the "social survey" - 2005
81% of the women in Israel reported that they were satisfied with their lives, 48% were satisfied with their economic situation, 52% of the men.
Satisfaction with work and income: women are more satisfied with work but less with income. 86% of the employed women are satisfied with their work compared to 81% of the men. 47% of the employed women are satisfied with the income from work compared to 53% of the men.
Almost half (47%) of the employed women work outside the settlement compared to 60% of the men.
73% of the women mentioned the factor "people who are nice to work with" as very important at work compared to 68% of the men. 64% of women claimed that income is a very important factor.
The factor "convenient hours" was found to be very important among the women at a rate of 48% compared to 37% among the men.
46% of women defined their main activity as "work" in the year preceding the survey (2005), compared to 64% of men.
20% of the women defined their main activity as "taking care of the home or family members" compared to only XNUMX% of the men.
Attitudes regarding retirement age: 38% of women think that the retirement age from work should be the same for women and men. More than half (54%) of women think that the retirement age for women should be 60 or older, compared to 49% of men who believe that the retirement age for women should be 60 or older.
Expectations for the future: over half (52%) of the women estimate that their lives will be better in the coming years, the men
(50%). 39% of women estimate that their financial situation will be better in the coming years compared to 42% of men.

More information about data from the social survey can be seen on the website at:

13 תגובות

  1. Noli, please stop talking nonsense, check for example what percentage of the inventions and patents were registered by men and what by women (hint, a tiny percentage), check how many men received Nobel prizes and how many women.

    So don't talk about the intellectual abilities of women in relation to men, and don't bother to explain what you think caused it, nobody cares. What is interesting are the facts on the ground and they are not really in your favor.

  2. nolly
    You hurt women a lot. With an arrogant attitude like yours, you will only alienate everyone from you, both men and women.
    You are right that men and women are different - you are wrong when you say that one gender is better than the other.

  3. See, what mental abilities are you talking about?

    You find it difficult to clean a plate and put a sheet on the bed, because it seems "complicated" to you.

    Who are you working on?

    Women and men are very different from each other, especially in the area of ​​morality and reliability. You are proof of the mental disability in a man.

    Feminists who believe that there should be equality are also deviant and wrong.

    There should not be equality, because women are far superior to men...from the smallest details to the largest.
    It's not just that crazy oppression exists.

    Only one man in a billion deserves to have a reasonable status in our world.

  4. Shmuel, what are you talking about? The woman in such a situation depends on the man and has to beg for everything.

    What are you talking about? Do men give so easily? They want all the power to be with them - to get women.

    Without their money, men would enslave far less women.

  5. Women and men earn the same because all the money the man earns he gives to his wife anyway. That is, she receives money without working.
    Discrimination in life expectancy is indeed discrimination.

  6. I disagree with your opinion that women will be mothers and earn less forever - I say that because of people like you we have deteriorated to the point that most of the men in the world are indifferent and ordinary and that for them it is a fact that women are like women, as you know, a certain part of a man's mind is much more developed and they even use a larger part of their mind than men, while for men Another part of the brain is developed.
    Women became like that only because they used to think that way, and a large part of men
    Deliberately makes them think like that and they are forced to be like that!!!
    Women will continue to be egalitarian forever and a large part of men will continue to think they can and are more important forever……….

  7. The illusion that the perverted and fringe feminist filth is trying to create will not change you
    The fact that women do not have the intellectual and physical ability of men.
    These two simple parameters come as a function of salary.
    There is no end to "affirmative action" = distorted and sick and falsified and distorted "studies" / "surveys" will not change the sane nature of humanity.
    Men will continue to be masculine and women will continue to be feminine and motherly and earn less forever.

  8. It still seems a bit problematic to me to determine that there is discrimination.
    You will agree with me that an employee's salary increases as he progresses in the job, and is indirectly determined by his seniority.
    Almost all men in Israel work until the age of 65. At first they earn not much, but towards the age of 45-50 they receive a very nice salary.
    What to do that in a large part of the families in Israel, the woman stops working after giving birth to devote her time to taking care of the children. So if we examine the workforce in their 20s and 30s, I think we will find that the work rate of men and women is similar, and the salary is also similar, and it is really not something for any of them.
    On the other hand, check the workforce aged 45-50. In my opinion, here too the salary will be similar, except that there will be many more working men than working women.
    Because of this "lack" of working women precisely at ages where the salary is relatively high, it lowers the average salary of the woman.
    Pay attention before you shout discrimination.

  9. Well, that means that on average over a lifetime, men and women earn the same amount of money

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