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The magnetic field of the planet Hema - new findings

Mercury's magnetic field is weaker than Earth's. Since Mercury is closer to the sun, the strength of the solar wind near it is 10 times stronger than the strength of this wind near the Earth, its influence is 1000 times greater and the volume of its magnetosphere is smaller.

The magnetic field of the planet Hema. Image: NASA
The magnetic field of the planet Hema. Illustration: NASA

Mercury's magnetic field is weaker than Earth's. Since Mercury is closer to the sun, the strength of the solar wind near it is 10 times stronger than the strength of this wind near the Earth, its influence is 1000 times greater and the volume of its magnetosphere is smaller.

The distance of the solar wind from the ground on the side facing the sun is 40% of its radius. The strength of the distortion of the magnetic field near the ground is equal to that of the magnetic field of the planet Hema itself (1). Mapping the topography and magnetic field of the planet Hema has revealed new details regarding dynamic processes within the planet. It is now known that the eruptions of energetic particles in the magnetosphere are the product of interaction between the magnetic field of Mercury and the solar wind. During the first flyby of Mariner 10, 4 bursts of charged particles were observed. In the years 2008-2009 when the Messenger spacecraft performed its transit flights near the planet Hema before entering orbit, no eruptions were observed. In contrast, when the spacecraft entered a polar orbit around it, these eruptions were observed with high frequency (2).

MESSENGER found that the equator of the magnetic field is north of the geographic equator. The dynamo generator that creates the magnetic field of the planet Hema has a north-south asymmetry. Because of this there is a difference in the geometry of the magnetic field lines between the poles. Each pole has a different geometry of the magnetic field lines. This is particularly noticeable in the "Polar Dome", a place where the magnetic field lines are exposed to the interstellar medium, to a greater extent at the South Pole than at the North Pole. The exposure is to charged particles heated and accelerated by the solar wind. The impact of these particles contributes both to the formation of the ecosphere and to space weathering of the soil (3).

When the solar wind hits the ground of Mercury at its poles, it releases sodium and oxygen particles, the main components of the ecosphere. During the interaction with the solar wind, these particles become charged. This interaction is done by a mechanism similar to the one that creates the aurora borealis (4). The greatest concentration of sodium particles is found at the poles (5).

KH (Kelvin – Helmolz) waves were discovered at the inner edge of the ecosphere. These waves are created when fluids move side by side at different speeds. In the case of a planet Mercury, it is the plasma of the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath (the space between the magnetopause and the shock wave of the magnetosphere) allows the mixing of plasmas on a larger scale than in liquids and in shorter time spans. The waves observed in the magnetopause (manetopause - the inner part of the magnetosphere) are different from those observed on Earth. Measurements of the waves were made in the afternoon and at night (do not forget that this is a day of the planet Mercury). While on Earth, KH waves are visible both on the night side and on the day side. The duration of these waves is 10-20 seconds while on Earth they last several minutes (6). A question that arose among the researchers is what causes the differences in the duration and strength of the reconnection of magnetic fields between one planet and another. It turned out that changes in the plasma and pressures of the magnetosphere affect the interaction between the solar wind and the planets throughout the heliosphere, to the same extent as the direction and strength of the interplanetary magnetic field surrounding the magnetopause of the planets (7).

The messenger observed a phenomenon similar to substorms on Earth. These are disturbances in the weather that appear intermittently several times a day and last between 3 and XNUMX hours. These substorms are accompanied by a wide range of phenomena such as the aurora borealis. They are also related to the appearance of high-energy particles that damage communications and satellites orbiting the Earth.

On Mercury these substorms are associated with the charging of magnetic energy in the planet's magnetic tail. The increase in the intensity of the energy measured in the magnetic tail was large. This phenomenon occurs quickly and the duration of each such charge is 2-3 minutes. This increase in magnetic energy is 10 times stronger than on Earth and the substorm-like phenomena are fast)

As for the tail of the magnetic field which was already noticed in previous observations, it turned out that the planet Hema has several other smaller tails and whose source of emission is other gases and they contain neutral and charged particles (9).

In the process of observations, helium ions were seen in the entire volume of the magnetosphere. They were brought by the solar wind from the sun during the interaction between the solar wind and the ground. It is estimated that after hitting the ground they are splashed in all directions. From the totality of the observations so far, one gets the impression that the magnetosphere provides little protection from the solar wind. Extreme space weathering continues its activity on the ground of the planet (5,10).


1. "Measuring the magnetic field of Mercury" 20.5.2011 Field_ Of_Mercury_999.


2. "Messenger provides new data about Mercury" 17.6.2011 Mercury_


3. "Mercury's Messenger reveals surprises" 20.6.2011 Mercury’s_ Messenger_ Reveals _Surprises_999.html

4. "Extreme space weather at Mercury blasts the planet pole" 5.10.2011 Extreme_ Space _Weather_ At_ Mercury _Blasts_ The_ Planet_ Pole_999.html

5. "Messenger reveals flood lavas hollows and unprecedented surface details of Mercury"

30.9.2011 Messenger _Reveals_ Flood_ Lavas_ Hollows_ And_ Unprecedented _Surface _Details _Of_ Mercury_999.html

6. "Mercury's magnetic field measured by Messenger orbiter" 18.5.2012 Mercury’s_ Magnetic_ Field_ Measured_ By_ Messenger _Orbiter_999.html

7. "Messenger completes its 1000th orbit of Mercury" 27.6.2012 __Mercury_999.html

8. "Messenger spacecraft reveals new information about Mercury" 16.7.2010 Messenger_ Spacecraft_ Reveals_ New_ _information _About_ Mercury_999.html

9."Mercury found to have comet-like appearance by satellite looking at sun" 23.9.2011 Mercury_ Found_ To_ Have_ comet _Like _Appearance_ By _Satellite_ Looking_ At _sun_999.html

10. PIA14851: Mapping ions around Mercury PIA14851

26 תגובות

  1. Itzik and Ruby

    When you say that Mercury is close to the sun, should you explain close in relation to what?
    There are many planets around other suns that are much closer to their star than Mercury is to our sun. The relevant radius as the minimum distance is the radius where tidal forces of the star will distort the planet, the typical distance for this to happen is something like a few solar radii - much more than Mercury's distance.
    As for the solar wind, in the case of our sun, the solar wind is a very negligible factor - large stars, with an average of 10-20 solar masses or more, tend to lose a lot of mass through the solar wind, stars such as our sun lose very little mass, so this mass will not cause For some effect on the planet Hema.

    In light of all these things, Mercury's orbit is not expected to change due to interactions with the Sun more or less until the end of its life, when it will become a red giant, its radius will far exceed Mercury's orbit and the entire dynamics of the solar system will completely change

  2. איציק
    Two stars can be in a pair, then they will revolve around a common center of gravity. If one of the stars starts turning into a red giant then part of its mass may be swallowed by the partner. This can change the balance point and "make a mess".

    1. This has nothing to do with the position of our sun and Mercury. Not today at least.... How exactly is a planet similar to a red giant??

    2. If ….. where does the idea come from that the sun is responsible for the rotation of the planets??

    And what is the concept of "motion force"??

  3. I actually think that the solar eruptions will cause a hot approach to the sun until it is swallowed, similar to spaceships (Skylab) that fall to the earth due to friction.
    The reason, the friction of the star Hema with the solar particles that cross the orbit of the star Hema as a result of the storms.
    This is a period of hundreds of millions of years and more, not in our time.

  4. Miracles I wasn't talking about the mass of the earth, read before you respond...I was talking about a human-made atomic bomb. I still think that the explosion on the surface of the sun is more powerful than an atomic bomb.

  5. Miracles .
    I saw in a science program that in the case of 2 suns running a sequential orbit, as soon as one's time comes to "die" it steals energy "from its sister"...
    2 points come to mind:
    1. What is the difference between 2 suns, one of which is doing its last dying flickers and its power is weakened to the ratio between the sun and the star Hema if we can attribute the star Hema to a dying and weak star?

    2. If the sun is responsible for the rotation of the stars around it, isn't it the one that determines the intensity of the rotation. I think that since the distance between the sun and Hema is short, the torque is also short and works against a Hema star and because of this, instead of gaining acceleration in order to move away from the Sun, the force of the movement His movement around the sun is proportional to the force of his movement in relation to his torque. If the torque increases, he will move away, but if the torque decreases, he will find himself in a collision with the sun.

  6. The mass of a typical solar flare is about one trillionth the mass of Earth. A bit of proportion….

  7. Robbie, you remind me of some kind of imaginary theory that I saw on Channel 8, several years ago, about propelling a spaceship by dropping nuclear bombs behind a spaceship and thus bringing it to an acceleration in space or the deviation of an asteroid from an impact path on the Earth. In my opinion, this is a bit inapplicable, but let's not compare the power of eruptions on the surface of the sun's halo to bomb an atom human actions.
    The scientific question is whether it is possible for these eruptions to have the power to delay the end of the planet Mercury and move it away from the sun.
    The same thing happens in Neptune as I think the scientists predict an identical collision there.
    I wonder which of these two cases will collapse and whether there is a chance that Neptune will undergo a change in the tilt angle of its poles, as happened in the past on Earth.

  8. Miracles, there is something in what Itzik writes, the solar storms that cause particle eruptions with a diameter of several Earth diameters, can cause friction if the particles pass through the orbit of a hot star and thus lose kinetic energy.

    Regarding a magnetic field, if you take a magnet and place it under the surface and on top of the surface you scatter ferrous metal particles (ferromagnetic), you will see that they are positioned according to the field lines, and if you are in a state of identical poles there is a state of repulsion.

  9. Itzik,
    What you want?
    Why would Mercury fall into the sun? To fall he has to slow down. To slow down he has to transfer his kinetic energy to someone. If the magnetic field at that distance was strong enough then a strong current might have been induced which would have produced heat. That's probably not the case.

  10. Is there anyone here who can answer my question?
    And a few things to enlighten your eyes:
    1. You are busy arguing nonsense, and every week without listening to yourself. It seems that science is not the main thing here, but the challenge is who will win the debate between you.

    2. Engage more in science than in debate.

    3. I hope you will now answer the question I asked above.

  11. Ruby
    You're not listening.
    A magnetic field is not a source of energy, it can be used to convert energy, for example from kinetic to electricity. The sun provides a huge amount of energy even from a huge distance – go outside on a summer day…….

    A gravitational field can also provide energy, by converting potential (free fall...). And again, this is also conversion.

  12. Zvi, I'm not disrespecting anyone, but it seems to me that the idea of ​​moving in space while using the magnetic field is possible, especially in a state of weightlessness.
    Just as in the laboratory you can play with a magnet or a metal part while using its poles and thus it floats within the magnetic field, so you can use a "magnetized" spaceship while reversing poles (relative to the surrounding field), to move along the lines of the magnetic field, with the help of technological manipulations that may be in the future .
    The speeds in this case can be very high.

  13. Ruby

    The idea is nice but not applicable:

    In order to produce a current from a magnetic field, the magnetic field must change - it is not possible to produce energy from a constant magnetic field.
    The magnetic field can apparently be changed by movement, but as Nishim answered you beautifully, the change in the magnetic field will follow you more than it can contribute to you.

    Regarding the idea of ​​miracles - do not underestimate - the idea is true and good

  14. Avi,

    Please note,
    In paragraph 5 it is written:
    "KH (Kelin-Helmolz) waves were discovered at the inner edge of the ecosphere. These waves are created when liquids…”

    I'm pretty sure that the name Kelvin was replaced by Kelin, since the description of the phenomenon shows that these are the waves created by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

  15. Just for general information, in how many years do you think the sun will swallow the planet Hema?
    It seems strange to me that he is still surviving around her, and not swallowed up in her.
    Another thing that is puzzling to me is why a magnetic connection was not created between the sun and its satellite, with all the radiation that the sun bombarded it with, it had to radiate some of this energy and the sun was almost certainly pulling it to it easily, is it possible that there is another hidden force here that just like the attractive force exists Is there a force of repulsion that keeps the planet Hema in its orbit and does not allow itself to be swallowed up so easily?
    Please only those who know and understand answer.
    Thanks in advance.

  16. Ruby…

    It is not possible to stay at any point in a static magnetic field. I'm sorry, but that's how it is in our universe.

    Beyond that, in order to generate electrical energy from a magnetic field, a counter force must be applied - and the poor spaceship will fall.

  17. It seems to me that this topic has not been considered enough for the purpose of movement in space, not in the form of normal orbits around the planet, but rather the utilization of the flow lines of the magnetic field for the spaceship to stay at the stagnation points of the field, the accumulation of energy to be used for electrical systems in the spaceship or propulsion, and the like.
    Maybe this is one big nonsense and maybe not...

  18. Ruby, what exactly will you do with electricity in a spaceship? What's important in a spaceship is usually its propulsion, and it's easy to get a heavy one. Electricity can be easily obtained from solar radiation, or atomic energy.

    Meir wrote you well - in the way you want you will have to convert energy from another source.

  19. Miracles, I wanted to generate electrical energy to charge the batteries of a spaceship, weighing down stars is not possible with simple means that are required in space.
    Meir, I thank you for the answer and it does make sense, but it seems to me that with perfect non-circular motion and by combining energies such as solar, solid fuel or optimal motion to the magnetic field lines together with a combined distance and approach to the Earth, it will be possible to accumulate energy in the spacecraft.

  20. Ruby
    You asked what the strength of the Earth's field is. So I answered you……..

    And if anything, the stars have gravity - why go far?

  21. Ruby,

    This is impractical because in order to drive a coil in a magnetic field energy is required which theoretically is at most equal (and practically (due to various losses) is greater than the energy that can be produced from the coil).

    In other words, if you consume energy from the coil, the spacecraft's speed will slow down because of the force that will act between the magnetic field of the star and the magnetic field passing through the coil due to the consumption. Assuming you don't want to land the spaceship, you'll have to spend more energy maintaining its speed than the energy you can get from the propeller.

  22. Nissim, it is clear to me that the subject is not so simple since the field lines change relative to the movement of the spacecraft, so the energy obtained is also a function of the angle of intersection of the magnetic field lines, relative to the movement of the spacecraft.
    That's why I'm looking for a professional who deals with the subject and is able to perform based calculations.
    It may be that my idea came up with something interesting and it may be impractical, so I would love to receive an educated answer

  23. I would like to hear the opinion of professionals, as you know, when a coil cuts magnetic field lines, an electric current is created inside the windings of the coil.
    Is it possible to use the magnetic field of stars / planets for energy in spaceships. That is: what is the length of the spaceship, its speed and how many laps should be around the spaceship to get enough energy for example 10 kilowatts?
    Does anyone know what the strength of the Earth's magnetic field is?

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