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The long journey he did justice to reach his current trajectory

The giant planet Jupiter was formed at four times the distance from the Sun and migrated inward to its current orbit over 700 years. This is the assessment of researchers who examined a group of asteroids close to Jupiter and conducted a simulation

Jupiter formed at a distance four times greater from the Sun than its current position today, according to a new simulation. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Jupiter formed at a distance four times greater from the Sun than its current position today, according to a new simulation. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech

It is known that many gas giants surrounding other suns are located very close to their sun (or at least the ones that are easy to find). According to the accepted theory, these planets formed at a distance and moved into an orbit closer to the star.

Researchers from Lund University in Sweden and other institutions used advanced computer simulations to learn more about Jupiter's journey through our solar system about 4.5 billion years ago. At that time, Jupiter was just being formed, along with the rest of the planets in the solar system. The planets gradually swelled as they absorbed cosmic dust, which circled our young sun in a disk of gas and particles. Jupiter back then was no bigger than today's Earth.
The findings show that Jupiter was formed at a four times greater distance from the Sun compared to its current position. "This is the first time we have proof that Jupiter formed far from the Sun and migrated to its current orbit. We found the evidence for travel in the Trojan asteroids that orbit Jupiter," explains Simona Pirani, PhD student in astronomy at Lund University, and lead author of the article.
The Trojan asteroids are a collective name for two groups of thousands of asteroids that orbit the sun in Jupiter's orbit, one group is ahead of it in its rotation around the sun and the other lags behind it. It is this asymmetry that has become the key for researchers to understand Jupiter's migration.

"The asymmetry has always been a mystery to solar system researchers," says Anders Johansen, professor of astronomy at Lund University.

Indeed, the research community has not been able to explain why the two asteroid groups do not contain the same number of asteroids. However, Simona Pirani, Anders Johansen, and other colleagues have now identified the cause by reconstructing the course of events of Jupiter's formation and how the planet gave rise to its Trojan asteroids.

Thanks to extensive computer simulations, the researchers calculated that the current asymmetry could only occur if Jupiter formed four times as far from the Sun and then migrated to its current orbit. During the journey towards the Sun, Jupiter's own gravity pulled more Trojan asteroids ahead of Jupiter than behind it.

According to calculations, Jupiter's migration lasted about 700,000 years, a period of about 2-3 million years after the celestial body began life as an icy asteroid far from the Sun. The journey into the solar system took place in a tortuous orbit where Jupiter continued to revolve around the sun, albeit in a tighter and tighter fashion. The actual reason for migration is the effect of gravitational forces from the surrounding gases in the solar system.

The simulations show that the Trojan asteroids were formed when Jupiter was a young planet without a gaseous atmosphere, which means that these asteroids are likely composed of the same building blocks that are similar to those that formed Jupiter's core. In 2021, NASA will launch a spacecraft named Lucy to orbit six Trojan asteroids and study them.
"We can learn a lot about Jupiter's core and its formation from studying the Trojan asteroids," says Anders Johansen.

The authors of the study also hypothesize that the second gas giant in the solar system - Saturn and the two ice giants Uranus-Uron and Neptune-Rahab, could have migrated in a similar way.

to the notice of the researchers

for the scientific article

More of the topic in Hayadan:

2 תגובות

  1. I don't think I should renew for those who know, he said to renew for those who don't know

  2. What's new here? After all, the accepted theory today is that Jupiter and Saturn were formed at a great distance from our young sun, and thus became gas giants; Later, after their creation, they moved towards the interior of the solar system, and thus "cleaned" the volume between the sun and Mars of gases (hydrogen and helium) and also captured quite a few solid fragments that moved freely and randomly. After that, these two gas giants moved away from the Sun and remained in their current orbits. Thus Jupiter and Saturn helped produce the four inner planets (solid planets) - and prevented the formation of one or more planets called "Earth-like" - planets with a mass and diameter that are 10 times or more than our Earth.
    So I will repeat the question I asked at the beginning of my response: what is new in this study?

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