American scientists last year cloned two monkeys from embryonic cells
פורסם ב -24.2.97
Scientists in Oregon, USA, created two monkeys in the process of cloning (genetic duplication) from monkey embryos. The researchers told the "Washington Post" that the monkeys were born in August 96. According to experts, this scientific success, (which has not yet been published in any scientific journal), of cloning a species close to the human species - reinforces the assumption that there is no biological limit to genetic replication, even of humans.
The newspaper reported yesterday that the American scientists used a technique similar to the one used by Scottish researchers a few months ago to create a sheep from a single cell of an adult sheep. Dolly the sheep, the first adult animal produced by this process, was born a few months ago; The news about the reproduction of the sheep aroused great interest in the entire world, due to its implications for the issue of the genetic reproduction of humans. Some governments have therefore rushed to ensure greater rigor in the supervision of researchers.
Unlike Dolly the sheep - they are not the same as an adult monkey
Unlike Dolly the sheep, the two monkeys were created according to the scientists from cells taken from embryos, and not from an adult animal. Therefore they are not identical to any adult monkey. The head of the research team, Don Wolff, who also serves as the director of the in vitro fertilization laboratories at the University in Portland, told the newspaper that the researchers do not plan to reproduce adult monkeys.
"The project is designed to examine whether it is possible to produce genetically identical monkeys for research purposes," he said, "since the use of animals with identical genetic traits may contribute to reducing the use of laboratory animals, with the disappearance of the genetic variation that contributes to disrupting the results of experiments."
The two monkeys are also not identical to each other, because they were cloned from different embryos. However, the researchers believe that this technique can also be used to produce eight or more identical monkeys, from only one embryo. According to them, the method has already been applied in the reproduction of embryos of other animals. The mother, however, it was not treated with genetic engineering. She is a perfectly normal sheep.
Patrick Dixon, who wrote a book on modern genetic technology, said that a breakthrough in this field would raise a large number of ethical issues. "I believe that this will allow us to duplicate any person and restore the dead using frozen material. The research was done on sheep, but almost any technique that was applied to any mammals can also be adopted among humans," he noted. Regarding this, James noted: "The replication of humans should be left in the realm of science fiction. Everyone involved in this research will oppose human cloning for ethical reasons."
Archive: Published on 12.1.01
Scientists in the US have created a genetically modified monkey
by Tamra Traubman
American scientists will report today that they succeeded in inserting a new gene into an unfertilized monkey egg, fertilizing the egg, and creating a baby monkey carrying the new gene in its body cells. As far as is known, the researchers say, this is the first time they have succeeded in creating an animal from the human family, the primates, using genetic engineering methods.
The head of the team of researchers, Dr. Gerald Shatten from the University of Health Sciences in Organ, said that his ultimate goal is to plant genes in rhesus monkeys that will cause a variety of human diseases - such as Alzheimer's, diabetes, cancer or AIDS - in order to better understand the development of diseases and develop healing methods news. The method of transplanting the gene has been used for many years in mice, but the extent to which conclusions can be drawn from the results of experiments in mice for humans is limited. Because monkeys are genetically closer to humans, they may be able to give researchers a better picture of how diseases develop in humans, Shatten said. "I think this is an extraordinary moment in human history," he added.
Other parties condemned the study. Dr. Ray Griek, spokesman for the "Physicians' Committee for Responsible Medicine," said: "I think they will get a lot of media coverage, which will eventually lead to
of a thing for pouring a lot of money into the University of Oregon. But in twenty years," Griek added, "will your children be safer from disease as a result of the research?
The chances of that are almost zero."
Shatten believes that the use of transgenic monkeys will actually limit the number of monkeys needed to conduct experiments, because it will be possible to genetically design laboratory animals. This will eliminate the need to establish a large pool of laboratory animals in the hope that one of the animals will have the necessary characteristics to conduct the experiment.
Shatten and his colleagues, whose research is published today in the journal "Science" made genetic changes in more than 200 eggs of rhesus monkeys, and fertilized them. 40 embryos were created, but a total of five pregnancies were completed and the mothers gave birth to three live pups. Of the three, only Andy's cells were found to have the new genes.
The gene implanted in the egg from which Andy developed is responsible for creating the green glowing protein. The researchers implanted it because it can be used as a marker that reveals whether the gene has been taken up by the cell and no less importantly - whether it is active. The researchers examined tissues and found that the gene was indeed present in Andy's body cells, but found no signs that the gene was active.
"Andy is a transgenic animal," said Prof. Brigid Hogan of Vanderbilt University, "but until you can show high levels of protein expression, it's not something to make an issue of and inflate the benefits of." To produce monkeys with human diseases, it is not enough to insert the gene into the cells, the gene has to be active."