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The Cosmological Constant: Einstein's Serious Mistake That Led to the Nobel Prize in Physics Part II

Part II: From the Hubble Expanding Universe to the Accelerating Universe Expansion

Prof. Albert Einstein
Prof. Albert Einstein. From Wikipedia

In the XNUMXs the Belgian priest George Lematra and Alexander Friedman both found solutions to Einstein's original field equations (without the cosmological constant) that describe an expanding, non-static universe. Friedman had trouble publishing his argument, the model of an expanding universe, without a cosmological constant.

First Friedman sent his paper to Einstein who ignored it. He personally went to Berlin, but Einstein was just out of town. Finally another physicist put Friedman's work in front of Einstein's eyes. Einstein's initial reaction was that the idea was simply wrong. Later, when he realized that Friedman had done the work correctly, Einstein commented that Friedman's results were mathematically interesting but - like Schwarzschild's results - "they had no physical meaning".

During the year, Einstein realized that there was actually no fundamental objection to what Friedman proposed, and for the first time he began to back away from the cosmological constant. Friedman did not live to enjoy the full justification of his model - which happened only after Hubble's revelations. Friedman died in 1925, probably of a type complicated by the harsh living conditions during the Russian Revolution and the resulting civil war.

But even then astronomers began to make progress on the subject of the dynamic universe.
In 1920, a debate began in the USA: Does the universe unfold and expand beyond our galaxy? The subject "Distance Scale of the Universe" was chosen as the subject of research by Edwin Hubble. Einstein was still in Berlin, Germany and was not involved in the debate that took place in the USA. Most astronomers at the time felt that the Milky Way occupied the entire universe, and its size was estimated to be 300,000 light-years across, the largest size yet given. Hubble's partner, Heber Daust Curtis preferred a smaller universe divided into "island universes", the spiral nebulae, but he thought the sun was the center of our "island". Another partner in the study, Harlow Scheifley, correctly positioned the sun away from the center of the Milky Way.

It was Hubble who looked through the 100 inch "Hooker" telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1923 and made the following discoveries. Initially with Hubble's discovery that the Andromeda Nebula was actually the Andromeda Galaxy, another galaxy, an island in the interstellar universe, which is equal to our own Milky Way and was then thought to be a million light years away from us. Only with this discovery did Hubble manage to discover several more galaxies and very quickly our picture of the universe expanded into a space inhabited by billions of galaxies. Hubble then used his results and those of others and measured the redshift in the spectra of the stars to show that twenty-five such newly identifiable receding galaxies are speeding away from us in every direction. The "red shift" can be compared to the everyday "Doppler shift" which causes the pitch of the train horn to be lower while the train is moving away from us. In the same way, the light from the galaxy that is accelerating away from Earth is shifted to longer and redder wavelengths. Hubble also showed that the farther the galaxy is from Earth, the faster it is receding.

It seems as if we have suddenly returned to the center of the universe and everything has moved away from us - a kind of rehabilitation of the geocentric teachings according to which the earth is at the center of the universe. but no. The fabric of the entire universe spread out and everything spread out in all directions; The galaxies moved away from each other in a homogeneous and symmetrical way, as if every point in the universe was the center of the universe. And so Hubble understood that, in general, the galaxies ran away from us at a speed that is proportional to their speed from us. Those that were twice as far away from us moved twice as fast and so on. The universe of galaxies can be viewed as a homogeneously and symmetrically inflated spatio-temporal matrix. Or more generally, Hubble identified the systemic relationship between the distance and the escape velocity of the galaxy, or the redshifts of distant galaxies that increase in proportion to their distance - as expected from uniform expansion, which is now known as Hubble's law. This law describes a dynamic and expanding universe - like the one created in an initial explosion, which is now known as the Big Bang.

Only after these discoveries did they suddenly notice the models of the expanding universe given in 1922 by Alexander Friedman, in which the cosmological constant was not needed at all.

In the summer of 1930 Arthur H. Fleming (the influential man who was chairman of the board of directors of Caltech - the California Institute of Technology) visited Einstein at his home in Capote, Germany and invited him to Pasadena to work and research at Caltech and also invited him to visit the edge of the mountain at the observatory. Astronomers at Mount Wilson were busy with sensational discoveries and Einstein welcomed the opportunity to meet the American scientists who had made observations that shed new light on the structure of the universe. He was also intrigued by the prospect of meeting famous physicists such as Richard Chase Tolman and Paul Epstein.

Einstein began his journey in San Diego, California, when he arrived on December 2, 1930 on the Belgian steamship "Blagland" and was accompanied by a day full of parades, ceremonies and speeches. He was asked why he decided to come to California from Berlin? Einstein replied that his main interest was to work on experiments at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Caltech, and to consult with the American physicists Paul Epstein, Robert P. Milliken and Albert Mickelson - the same Mickelson from the famous Mickelson and Morley experiment from 1887 that was designed specifically to discover relative motion of the Earth relative to the site of the 19th century. Einstein planned to make observations and conduct research at the observatory on Mount Wilson above the city of Pasadena in the San Gabriel Mountains.

After these answers and the flashes of the cameras and their voices, while Einstein got off the ship's hatch and waved to the thousands who had gathered on the platform to greet him, he was escorted to an official reception that had never been seen before in San Diego, especially by the Jewish community.
After the festive reception in San Diego, the Einstein group, which included Einstein himself, his wife Elsa, the mathematician Dr. Walter Mayer and his faithful secretary Helen Dukes, they traveled in a motorcade 200 miles north to the pastoral city of Pasadena. In Pasadena Einstein spent the next three months engaged in research in Caltech's Norman Bridges Laboratory along with leading figures in American science.

Einstein and his wife lived in a cottage at 707 South Oakland Avenue, nine blocks from the Caltech campus. A wide variety of scientific lectures, speeches, trips, concerts, film premieres and banquets were planned for Einstein during his stay in Pasadena.

At the time Einstein arrived in Pasadena he was 51 years old and the most famous scientist in the world. But from the heights of Hubble's "cathedral of astronomy" at the tip of Mount Wilson, the structure of the universe looks strikingly different from that first described by Einstein in 1917.
The exciting work of Hubble and other scientists forced a reexamination of Einstein's concepts of the static universe. The big question hanging in the air at that time at Caltech in 1931 was, would Einstein give up his cosmological constant and accept the idea of ​​an expanding universe?

The evidence that the universe is expanding was presented in the popular press as a challenge to Einstein's theories. It was therefore a scientific drama that captured the imagination of the public. One newspaper story began with the words, "Large star systems are speeding away from Earth at 7300 miles per second and present a problem to Dr. Albert Einstein."

Famous researchers and scholars as well as guests gathered especially in honor of the visiting scientist on January 15 in the elegant hall of the institute, called the "Atheneum". Albert Einstein was presented as "the greatest physicist of the period, the one who inspired and guided all the main lines of physical research during the last 25 years". As the guest of honor walked towards the podium the audience rose to their feet and clapped for a long time. With Einstein dressed in a black tuxedo, a black tail jacket and a white gardenia tucked to the left of his suit lapel, he ascended freely. "My dear friends", he began to speak, "I have come to you from afar, but not to strangers." I came among people who for many years have been my true friends at work."

On January 29, Einstein was given the opportunity to observe other worlds through the large telescope on Mount Wilson. Researchers and staff waited for Einstein. After driving 20 miles around curves to reach the observatory located at the edge of the San Gabriel Mountains, Einstein arrived in time to watch the sunset. Hubble and Dr. Walter S. Adams, director of the observatory acted as guides. Einstein's wife joined them on the trip to Mount Wilson. It was explained to her that the sophisticated telescopic equipment was used to determine the extent and shape of the universe. She is said to have replied, "Well, my husband does it on the back of an old envelope."

Adams accompanied Einstein to an elevated mobile platform under the famous Hawker telescope, which at the time was the largest in the world and through which Einstein looked at the moon, Jupiter and other celestial bodies. Einstein also looked at the asteroid Eros. "Great," exclaimed Einstein, as the asteroid was seen through the 100-inch telescope. They all stayed by the telescope into the night. "I could stay here for days," Einstein said when the hour of midnight came.

Einstein examined high-resolution spectrographs and other evidence that demonstrated the universe was expanding. He saw that the work was impressive and he commented that his cosmological constant which he received 13 years ago was "redundant". Einstein looked through the large telescope, he talked about what he saw there and almost immediately he retracted the cosmological constant. He was happy to give up the cosmological constant which he didn't like anyway.

In a new edition of his popular book on special and general relativity from 1931, he already added an appendix in which he explains why the cosmological constant that he introduced into the field equations in 1917 was, thank God, now useless. Whereas when George Gamow discussed cosmological problems with Einstein, the latter pointed out to him that the cosmological constant was the most serious mistake he had made in his life. Einstein wrote to his friend Sue on March 1, 1931 that the people at Mount Wilson are great, "They have recently discovered that the spiral nebulae are distributed approximately uniformly in space, and they show a strong Doppler effect, proportional to their distances, this one can easily be deduced from general relativity without the 'cosmological' term ". In other words, the cosmological constant that Einstein introduced to explain his static universe turned out to be unnecessary because the universe was actually discovered to be expanding. Einstein pointed out to Basu that "the situation is really fascinating".

In 1998, measurements of redshifts and distances between supernovae by the Supernova Cosmology Group and the High-Z Supernova Search Group of three physicists named Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt, and Adam Ries showed that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, just as de Sitter found in his 1917 model.

It seems that about 70% of the energy density of the universe is a kind of "dark energy" that fills the universe. This was later confirmed by observations of non-uniformities in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The density of dark energy does not change rapidly while the universe expands, and if it really does not depend on time then it is just the effect expected from the cosmological constant. That is, measurements of distant supernovae show that the universe contains an excess of dark energy that behaves like the cosmological constant. 70% of the cosmic energy is associated with the cosmological constant. Although this has been resolved, it is still a matter of wonder why the cosmological constant is not large enough as expected from calculations from quantum fluctuations. In recent years, the question has occupied theoretical physicists.

Einstein introduced the cosmological constant in 1917 and later saw it as a real mistake. But in fact it can be said that Einstein's real mistake was to see the cosmological constant as a mistake... and here it is, with the contemporary discovery of an expanding universe in an accelerated manner and his winning the Nobel Prize, the cosmological constant once again makes an impressive "comeback" exactly 90 years after Einstein won the Nobel Prize himself and so the cosmological constant rears its ugly head..., and this time it seems that he came back only to stay. And Einstein, as happened many times before, was right in the end...

to the first part of the article

38 תגובות

  1. Suggested data-based update of some basic concepts:

    On Light And Dark Mass And Energy

    Most probably wrong common statements:

    1) "...could help solve mysteries such as the nature of the dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of the universe."
    2) "Light has no resting mass, just energy. Gravity is a bend in space, therefore Gravity does not pull at light but the light 'bends' with space.

    Most probably right :

    1) The present universe expansion is an accelerating separation of galaxy clusters, fueled by singularity's mass reconverting to energy since Big Bang. In the present universe almost all mass formats are destined to convert to energy. The attempts to postpone this reconversion are termed evolution/natural selection. The accelerating pace of expansion is Newtonian, as a constant E is acting on a continuously decreasing m.

    2) Light has mass. Every object and every process in the universe is a progeny, consequence, derivative of singularity, energy-mass superposition, dualism. Gravity is NOT "a bend in space". It is the propensity to natural selection, to delay reconversion to energy, to maintain the energy in mass format. Light bends by gravity when gravity's pull does not suffice to overcome light's momentum. However, light's momentum is no match for black-hole's gravity...

    Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

  2. To all interested
    I am going to give a lecture on: "Dark mass and energy"
    The lecture will be held on Thursday, November 3, 21:30 - 22:30 at the observatory in Givatayim
    Lecture details
    At the beginning of the twentieth century it was discovered that the universe contains billions of galaxies. An in-depth examination of the movement of the galaxies showed that it is greatly exaggerated in its speed and is not suitable for gravitation resulting from the amount of their mass. In order to solve the problem, an idea was expressed of adding mass (lacking dark) to the galaxies in the amount required by the motion. Later, testing the accelerated expansion of the universe also led to the need for additional energy to the universe. What are the dark mass and energy, so many people search for them, and not with much success, how does the lecturer see the future of this idea. After the lecture, if possible, we will hold a discussion on the subject
    Admission is free for members of the Israeli Astronomical Society and NIS 15-25 for others
    We will be happy to see you
    Sabdarmish Yehuda
    The Israeli Astronomical Society

  3. (And maybe, finally, this will be my last article here…?)

    The energy recovery of the universe into mass

    This equation describes the expansion of the universe:

    E=Total[m(1 + D)] D = distance traveled by mass since singularity

    The following equation describes the future contraction of the universe:

    E=Total[m(1 – D)] D = distance traveled by mass since end of expansion

    And the meaning:

    m, the units of mass (graviton?), do not decay - never disappear. They are the fundamental particles of the universe.
    In the current cycle, in the expanding universe, they were in motion as mD and those of them that damaged the configuration
    some mass and moved it stopped moving forward. This process will continue until all/most of them reach an inert state,
    For non-progress, that is, until D stops growing. Then gravity will overcome the inertia of the movement
    which moves away from the starting point, from the singularity, and will take turns moving back towards the starting point, then
    -D will replace +D. This is because both sides of the equation must always be equal, during the expansion
    and during the contraction.

    And, much more:

    The logical, and therefore the scientific, meaning is that the contemporary universe is saturated with the units of mass left behind
    during its spread. And this is the picture of the composition of the space of the universe...

    Dov Henis

  4. A constant rate of recovery of the universe's mass to energy is assumed

    E=Total[m(1 + D)] D = distance traveled by mass since singularity

    In my opinion... the whole universe is a cluster of struggles whether yes or no, whether together or apart, whether to unite or separate...
    This is not just a cliché. The yes and the no, together and apart and uniting or parting owe each other. without one there is no other.

    Likewise, and in exactly the same way, the energy and mass of the universe complement each other. without one there is no other.
    And from the singularity state we know that in their essence they are one and that their quantity is one and we know that this quantity is fixed, specific.

    The universe is expanding because:
    From the Big Bang format, as well as from our personal experience, we are familiar with the process of compressing matter as much as possible until the compression shatters.

    The two poles of the universe, the compression of the mass of the universe into a singularity, and the explosion and expansion of the universe, are all carried out in the energy-mass conversion process, once in the direction of all energy and once in the direction of all mass. Gravitation is a weak force, which manages to restore all the energy to the entire mass only when the distance (D) between the elementary particles of the matter is zero. Since the big bang, which is the resolution, the separation, between the elementary particles of the mass, increasing the D from zero, all the mass formations continue up to and including the elementary particles of the matter (gravitons?) to become fragments, to be released as energy, and to drive the mass formations that have not yet been converted into energy.

    Gravitation is the monotheism and genesis of the universe simply because it is the factor that determines everything in the universe, and this is because ultimately everything in the universe is made up of the elementary particles of mass. (gravitons?)

    (in brackets, also in life, in our biosphere, everything is complex and determined by the genes, the RNAs, all life is the result of their evolution)

    So why is the rate of the universe's mass-to-energy conversion bound to be constant?

    Because what determines the direction of mass conversion is the committed choice between yes or no, between uniting or separating
    And the decisive factor that determines the rate of conversion is the committed equality between the two sides of the aforementioned equation. Everyone on both sides of the equation monitors and supervises the other side...

    The conversion process that started with the Big Bang is not like the "yes or no" and "unite or separate" process in animals. We can be for a while, and only a while, in an intermediate state between yes and no or between uniting or separating. Only for a while, because our situation has no weight in the universe, it will not affect the universe, and in the end the universe will be the determiner for us. But the universe does not stop in an intermediate state. The universe is now flowing towards the entire direction of energy against gravity, against its tendency back to the singularity, and will start on the way back when the fuel m runs out.

    And then again it will be impossible to stop him, until he returns to the Singularity, and God forbid...

    Dov Henis

  5. The universe "works" without gravity.
    Google "neural astrophysics" and look at the article.
    happy holiday

    A. Asbar

  6. Lezvi and others
    for the record
    I agree that the universe will expand forever but do not tie it at all to dark energy or the cosmological constant.
    In my opinion, the universe will expand forever and at an acceleration only because a large gaseous body - the universe, expands into the emptiness around it.
    The acceleration results from the fact that parts inside the universe are not aware of the expansion immediately and only after some time will feel the expansion, to an ever-increasing degree - i.e. acceleration. There is no need for dark energy or a cosmological constant.
    Just gas spreading into the void around it.
    But no one will believe me. So maybe after all it is better to talk about dark energy and cosmological constants that everyone loves and sees in them the miracle incarnate and even see it as a reason for a Nobel Prize, something that is far, far from the intention of the Nobel Prize committee who gave the prize only for the discovery of acceleration and not for an unproven explanation..
    In short, whatever you want
    Please respond gently and consider the late night time.
    Good night
    Sabdarmish Yehuda

  7. True - this is what they showed Friedman and Mater
    Those interested are advised to read the book ¨The Big Bang¨ by Simon Singh (recommended in any case)

  8. deer:
    According to Wikipedia ( It turns out that he was also wrong in another thing, and that is in the assessment that the cosmological constant has the power to produce a static universe, while the equilibrium that the constant creates is unstable.
    This is a mistake that, in light of the findings, does not harm the validity of the theory.

    The quote from Wikipedia:

    In fact adding the cosmological constant to Einstein's equations does not lead to a static universe at equilibrium because the equilibrium is unstable: if the universe expands slightly, then the expansion releases vacuum energy, which causes yet more expansion. Likewise, a universe which contracts slightly will continue contracting.

  9. A few short notes
    Dov - The statement that the energy in the universe is constant and therefore the universe will return and shrink and there will be a "next round" is a statement based on classical intuition and it is also only in the special case that the total kinetic and gravitational energy is negative - in this context read about ""Friedman's equation" on Wikipedia about its classical analogy.
    You can also read my response from August 2 in the link
    As Yehuda pointed out, the fact that the galaxies are accelerating means that there is dark energy - something unclear that causes the formation of more space to introduce more energy into the system - or alternatively it means that the space has a natural tendency to expand - a question of reference in this context, see my response to Camila from August 4 of the same Link.
    The meaning of the accelerated expansion is that if it is described mathematically like Einstein's cosmological constant, then the universe will expand forever as Yehuda pointed out.

    On the question of whether Einstein was right:
    Einstein created the theory of general relativity out of incredible logic and created a beautiful Torah - except that this Torah contradicted the reality known in those days and predicted a non-static universe.
    Einstein found that the universe can be static on the side of the continued existence of his theory if to the field equation, the equation of general relativity, a member of a very specific type (a scalar multiplied by a metric) is added - this member, if it is of a certain size, will predict a static universe. At any other size it will predict a non-static universe but will add an element of acceleration or deceleration to it.
    Einstein was of course wrong in predicting the size of that constant - the universe is not static
    The statement that he was right refers to the fact that the element of dark energy that was discovered decades after his death behaves mathematically exactly like the element he predicted (a scalar multiplied by a metric) and was only wrong in its size - an observational fact that he was not aware of.

  10. post Scriptum.

    On another thought:

    "My" gravitons can be called both black matter and black energy. They are both mass and energy. They were born into the universe together with each cluster of galaxies and since then they continue to be born in each cluster at a regular rate, to be the unifying glue of each cluster, and to be the fuel and accelerators of the cluster's movement...

    Dov Henis

  11. Our theory of the universe is on one leg

    This is an intuitive equation, describing reality as it is perceived in my imagination
    E=Total[m(1 + D)] (D = distance traveled by mass since singularity)

    When D was zero the universe reached a singularity for a second particle. There is nothing else left in our universe. Therefore the source and all the energy of the universe was in the singularity, necessarily in a compressed configuration of two-valued mass-energy particles.

    We'll call them gravitons, but they must have mass, and they must be the smallest possible.
    Therefore the mass-energy amount of the universe must be constant.

    When the universe expands D increases, therefore m must decrease, and therefore - according to Newton - the acceleration of expansion is bound, and with it a constant rate of the mass recovery of the universe is bound to energy. And the decrease of the mass and its recovery into energy requires that every conversion of gravitons into energy is a "recovery" of the big bang, of the resolution of mass-energy overlap.

    From the above one can expect to find not an illusory Higgs particle but a graviton mass particle. Maybe this is also delusional, but for now it seems logical to me, and therefore scientific...

    So far on one leg…

  12. Db
    "The amount of energy in the universe is constant" - we raise a toast to this.

    but why:

    E=Total[m(1 + D)] relates E and m via the variable D. D is the sum total of distance, in ALL spatial directions, traveled by m since start of reconversion of m to E
    Question Mark.

  13. To Dev Henis
    So that's it, the universe is actually expanding and accelerating and it doesn't seem like it's ever getting ready to shrink.
    Regarding the last lines of your response, it seems to me that this is really your private opinion.
    Good Day
    Sabdarmish Yehuda

  14. Israel,

    The amount of energy in the universe is constant.
    It is found in the form of a mass in motion. In the current cycle of the universe the total movement of the masses is moving away from the singularity point. In the next cycle (come and see...) the total movement will be back towards the point of Genesis, to stop all movement and unite as the mass of the whole world, to a second particle...

    The speed of movement of the basic masses that make up the total mass of the universe, which push the primordial fragments of the united universe (clusters of galaxies) created in the big bang and continue to separate them, is also fixed.

    In my opinion... the whole universe is a cluster of struggles between yes and no, between together or apart, between connecting or separating...

    In my opinion…

  15. Did not get it, Dov
    Why do you claim that E is a constant?
    Isn't it a variable, dependent on M through the constant c

  16. Thanks to Gali and all the commenters (I also have no problem with Mr. Dov Henis' English... with such a mind and knowledge - I wish you good health until 220!)
    I'm just wondering what's up with this respectable forum and the delusional congratulations in the style of "finishing a good signature" ???!!!
    (And let's talk about "times for joy"...)

    As far as I'm concerned, only in terms of finishing a good signature on scientific studies, contracts of all kinds and dead checks!

  17. Right. Thanks to Meir the commenter for correcting the mistake.
    And to those who enjoyed reading the article, thank you.
    Please note that this is an article in the history of physics from Einstein to the 2011 Nobel Prize. This is not an article that explains cosmology and is behind the discovery of the rapidly expanding universe. For this purpose, my father published other articles here (such as an interview with Prof. Avishai Dekal and others).
    The article explains the historical processes that led to the physical discovery that won the Nobel Prize in 2011. Since it is physics, the language is physical. But this is actually a historical article.

  18. Dr. Gali
    I enjoyed reading the article.
    I think there is a small mistake in the paragraph:
    "Therefore Hubble understood that, in general, the galaxies ran away from us at a speed that is proportional to their speed from us."
    I'm sure you meant: "far away from us"

  19. It doesn't matter if Dov wrote in simple or complicated language. The main thing is that he wrote that energy is constant.

  20. May you have many more years and up to 120!
    And many more fruitful theoretical ideas 🙂
    There are professors who are smarter and more learned than me and I hope they will read the passages you wrote above and they will be able to respond to you better than I can!

  21. jelly,

    If your response is to the above articles - I am sorry and apologize.

    For me the above English is a simple language, not academEnglish. I've been writing for many years for international circulation (86 years old) and I really don't have time to translate.

    Sorry, and happy holidays,


  22. To Benjamin
    Einstein, with all due respect, was not always right. Not all of his predictions matched him.
    In the EPR paradox he was wrong, when he claimed that no effect can travel faster than light.
    What is interesting is that, although this was the heart of his argument, (non-locality in quantum entanglement), after it was proven that such a transition is possible, his followers continued to claim (rightly) that there is no contradiction to the theory of relativity.
    But if that is the case, why did he himself claim that such a contradiction exists?
    happy New Year.

  23. To Gali, happy new year

    Here is Einstein's mistake (not a mistake, but a lack of distinction):

    Imagine, just imagine, the interest and activity big bang in science if/when finally freed from AAAS stock !!!

    Science is not another, AAAS trade-union peer-reviewed, religion.
    It takes continuously critical refreshed thinking....

    Whence And Whither
    Extend Darwin-Einstein Horizon, EmD

    EmD versus Emc

    E = mc2 relates E and m via constant c.
    However, since E and c are constant m must also be constant...?!
    Yet for engineering-technology applications the equation is practical, fine.

    E=Total[m(1 + D)] relates E and m via the variable D. D is the sum total of distance, in ALL spatial directions, traveled by m since start of reconversion of m to E.
    This relationship is science, not engineering or technology. E is constant, m and D are variables. D cannot be less than zero, and m varies with D. This is universal reality.

    In this reality there is no missing E. E is there, transformed to mD. mD is E.
    In this reality there is no missing m. m is there, transformed to mD. mD is E.

    Think about it. This is the basic essence of Evolution, of ALL evolutions. Evolutions are the quantum mechanics of all processes.

    Dov Hennis
    (comments from the 22nd century)

  24. to wave
    It seems to me that Nobel's request was to divide each maximum prize into three so that Einstein could not be a fourth partner. But maybe I'm wrong
    happy New Year
    Sabdarmish Yehuda

  25. Summary of a small part of my articles of the last 10 years:

    EOTOE, Some Implications (I)

    EOTOE is an Embarrassingly Obvious Theory Of Everything.

    In essence it states that all things in the universe, nouns and verbs objects and processes, originate and derive from the energy-mass dualism.
    The origin and essence of this derivation are expressed mathematically by

    E=Total[m(1 + D)] (D = distance traveled by mass since singularity)

    Which suggests that the universe cycles between two poles: singularity/all-mass, and maximum-expanded/nearly-all-energy.
    The "nearly" all-energy leaves behind some mass formats that begin consolidating by gravity, when it eventually overcomes expansion as the mass fueling the expansion is nearly depleted, becoming very small m multiplied by very large D = E .

    Thus the essence/definition of gravitation is:
    "Gravitation is the propensity of energy reconversion to mass".

    Gravitation is the "monotheism" and the genesis of the universe. Singularity, at D = 0, is the very brief all-mass pole of the universe. The Big-Bang-inflation did/does not produce matter or anti-matter. It was/is the beginning of mass reconversion into energy, of increasing D fueled by decreasing m.

    Inflation started with the whole universe shattering into what evolved into, became, the galaxy clusters. The clusters expansion is fed at a constant rate by m-fuel. Since expansion accelerates, the clusters depart from each other at an ever increasing velocity, we learn that the rate of m-to-E reconversion in the universe is constant. The accelerated expansion derives from the ever decreasing m of each cluster.

    Thus the essence/definition of evolution, natural selection is:
    Mass formats attaining temporary augmented energy constraint in their successive generations, with energy drained from other mass formats, to temporarily postpone, survive, the reversion of their own constitutional mass to the pool of cosmic energy fueling the galactic clusters expansion.

    This explains why black holes and humans, in fact all mass formats, must feed themselves in order to survive.
    This explains that the essence of quantum mechanics of all processes is the detailed procession steps, the evolution details, between physical states ordained for natural selection.

    Thus comes to light the universe inspected progressively in greater detail.
    Science reveals the universe's nature-scope and directing drive, followed by technology studying its evolution details-aspects, followed by engineering exploitation of the obtained information. This suggests the specific weight, importance, of science, technology and engineering in considering research or enterprise plans and implementation.

    Dov Hennis
    (comments from the 22nd century)

    Definitely: Dark energy and dark matter YOK!
    Universe's m reconverts to E at a constant rate…
    Universe expands per Newton's motion laws, obviously...
    Also, universe physics constants should vary, probably slightly, between galaxies clusters due to varied cluster sizes...
    Also, the clusters formed by dispersion at inflation...

  26. A good popular explanation from the Times:,8599,2096138,00.html?xid=rss-health&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+time%2Fscienceandhealth+%28TIME%3A+Top+Science+Stories%29
    If Einstein were alive today, would he be the fourth partner for the Nobel Prize?
    Einstein felt that there was something missing in de Sitter's universe. Was he looking for additional matter in the universe that de Sitter proposed in 1917? Einstein looked underground for matter in the de Sitter universe and was not quickly convinced that there was no matter there and that the de Sitter universe was completely empty. It seems that in the light of history Einstein was right as usual... maybe he meant dark energy. He was looking for forces and a physical source in missing masses that could give the physical justification he so desperately sought for his cosmological constant. Einstein's genius was expressed in his sharp vision that something was missing in the de Sitter universe... and he quickly agreed to give up his static universe and the cosmological constant because of his openness and flexibility of thought: You showed me evidence that there is no matter in the de Sitter universe. And you later showed me that the universe is expanding, so I don't hold to the cosmological constant. But inside Einstein knew that Mach's principle was the right direction and his intuition was correct: to introduce the cosmological constant. He gave up the static universe and saw beyond de Sitter's universe that there was something more...

  27. Dear Friends
    Don't make up things I didn't say.
    I appreciate Einstein and I appreciate Dr. Gali Weinstein
    But I agree with Aryeh Seter's words.
    Einstein had a reason for the inclusion of a cosmological constant and it is not the fiery expansion of the universe.
    Finished a good signature for everyone
    Sabdarmish Yehuda

  28. I'm short of criticizing Einstein, but I don't think it's appropriate to say that Einstein was ultimately right about the cosmological constant because the constant returned due to another consideration.
    And another question I have about Einstein, which I already wrote in response to the first part of the article - and it is addressed to Gelli - was Einstein aware of Olvers' paradox (which rules out a state of a static universe, both infinite and closed).

  29. Dear Seter and Svardamish
    It really hurts you to give credit to Einstein and (to Dr..) Weinstein?
    After all, everyone who read the article written by Dr. Weinstein is noting,
    I understand the source of the error and the error in denying the error...
    All of Einstein's predictions were correct and he can rest easy
    In peace, even if its cosmological constant is a product
    Doubtful of observations made using inadequate technology.

    What is worth noting in this story is precisely the flexibility of his thought
    of Einstein, who, unlike Linus Pauling (regarding the discoveries of
    Schechtman) realized that the equations he wrote should describe the universe and not
    On the contrary - and searched for the truth all his life and not how to be right.

    And if in the end he was right when he was wrong (or vice versa...), we got it
    An interesting story about a man who wanted to know and inform.

  30. for everyone
    The impolite response of the one who calls himself a "Sebadrama Jew" is not my response. My father can certainly verify this.
    Gali certainly does not deserve such treatment for the interesting article she wrote.
    Good signature
    Sabdarmish Yehuda

  31. I completely agree with the first part of Aryeh Seter's response. Einstein created a cosmological constant that would explain the fact that the universe is not contracting due to gravitation. I don't think he would join all the celebrants who use the cosmological constant as an excuse for the accelerated expansion of the universe.
    After all, it is not a great wisdom to add a constant to your formula that will take care of adjusting the results to any measurement you make in the field. Did you get too little? Take a constant greater than one!, did you get too much?, take a constant less than one, and come to Zion Goel.
    If you will it is very similar to the use made in the dark mass. You take as much as you need and place it in the universe and then everything fits the results of Newton's formulas!
    Please respond gently, Yom Kippur today!
    Good signature
    Sabdarmish Yehuda

  32. Questions
    Why is it said that Einstein was right, in the end, about the cosmological constant? To assume the existence of a cosmological constant to explain the non-gravitational collapse of a static universe (as they thought), is definitely a wrong thing after discovering that the universe is actually expanding - even if decades later the constant returns, but this time to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. I assume that the values ​​of the constant are also different, for each of its causes.
    Another question - why is the mysterious dark energy not attributed to the quantum fluctuations of space (even if the values ​​do not match, as stated in the article)?

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