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The Jews, the Nazis and the race for the atomic bomb

To what extent did refugee Jewish scientists contribute to the creation of the atomic bomb? And how close did the Nazi scientists in Germany come to creating such a bomb? Professor Alex Gordon from the Department of Mathematical Sciences - Physics and Computer Sciences at Oranim College Oranim College explains and discusses the various and inaccurate versions created around the affair, which was the biggest secret of World War II, after the war

by Prof. Alex Gordon, The Department of Mathematical Sciences - Physics and Computer Sciences at Oranim College

Nuclear bomb. Courtesy of Oranim College spokespersons
Nuclear bomb. Courtesy of Oranim College spokespersons

The Marxist philosopher of Jewish origin George Lukacs did not like Western civilization. He used to ask "Who will save us from Western civilization?"

But Western civilization took care of its salvation by creating the American atomic bomb.

European anti-Semitism, and especially Hungarian anti-Semitism, contributed to this "rescue operation". In 1919, a communist revolution took place in Hungary, led by the Jew Le Cohn. The communist regime in the Soviet Hungarian Republic, where Lukács was Minister of Culture, carried out "Red Terror" according to the model of Soviet Russia. Since many leaders of revolutionary Hungary were Jews (30 of the 48 commissars, members of the government, and 161 of the 202 officials), the Christian population perceived the Soviet rule of the country as Jewish rule.

The rebellion against the communists was violent, bloody, and anti-Semitic. The Soviet regime fell four months after its establishment. Although Jews were also victims of the revolutionary oppression, many thousands of innocents suffered from the "White Terror", the opposite of the "Red Terror", and the pogroms. The Jewish pogroms in Hungary, which began after the defeat of the revolution, continued until 1921: the Hungarians took revenge on the Jews who had nothing to do with the communist government. Anti-Semitism in Hungary caused the prominent physicists from the wealthy Hungarian families of Jewish origin to flee the country - Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, Leo Szilard, and Edward Teller - and these contributed greatly to the success of the Los Alamos project for the production of the American atomic bomb. Wigner and von Neumann attended the same school as Lukács.

Many years later, the Nobel laureate in physics, Eugene Wigner, told me, to the young physicist who met him in an IDF uniform with a submachine gun while on vacation at the Technion in Haifa, that the United States owes Bella Kuhn its success in the production of nuclear weapons... without Bella's revolutionary activity Kuhn, and the pogroms that occurred as a result of it, the Hungarian Jews would not have come to the United States, and Albert Einstein would not have been persuaded to sign the letter to US President Roosevelt on August 2, 1939. A letter that led to the establishment of the American nuclear project at Los Alamos.

The Nazis exploited, among other things, the fiction about the danger from the Jews described in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", which claim the threat of Jewish control over the world, and claimed the lives of millions of Jews in World War II. The events of the war illustrated to the small group of Jewish physicists that the power of the Nazis could increase dramatically if they succeeded in exploiting the great scientific discovery of nuclear fission. The Jews who worked on the described project tried to prevent the continuation of the Holocaust. The "protocols" of these atomic "elders" were not recorded. The answer to the Nazis was not written on paper, but given in actions.

During World War II, the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. The bombs were supposed to be dropped on Germany, but the war with it ended earlier than the production of the bombs. The end of World War II was marked not only by the production of the American nuclear bombs, but also by the prevention of the production of the Nazi nuclear bomb. If the Germans had succeeded in their military nuclear project, Hitler would have continued to rule Germany and Europe. However, Germany, which had outstanding nuclear physicists led by Werner Heisenberg, was unable to achieve the production of the nuclear bomb.

Werner Heisenberg, German Government Archives, Wikipedia
Werner Heisenberg, German Government Archives, Wikipedia

In 1927, the twenty-six-year-old Heisenberg became a professor at the University of Leipzig, and the youngest professor in German history. In 1933, at the age of thirty-two, he became the youngest Nobel Prize winner in the world for his formulation of the uncertainty principle, and his great contribution to quantum mechanics (he won the Nobel Prize for 1932). One of the hypotheses about the reason for the failure of the Germans in the atomic project is that the great Heisenberg made a big mistake in calculating the critical mass of the nuclear fuel. He found it to be equal to about fifteen tons, while it is a thousand times smaller: the Hiroshima bomb weighed fifty-six kilograms. Heisenberg himself, unlike his many critics and accusers of collaborating with the Nazis, denied that he had calculated the critical mass.

He admitted his mistake in this calculation in August 1945, after the bombing of Hiroshima, in a conversation with a friend for the discovery of nuclear fission, Nobel Prize winner (1944) the German chemist Otto Hahn, which was recorded during the wiretapping by the British intelligence at the place of stay of the German nuclear scientists detained in Pharma Hall in England.

On May 8, 1924, two German Nobel laureates in physics, Philip Lennard (1905) and Johann Stark (1919), supported the ideas of the Nazi Party in the newspaper "Greater Germany". Lennard and Stark were members of the group of thirty physicists who came up with the concept of "German physics". They rejected the new quantum physics and the theory of relativity as dogmatic theories, unrelated to reality. They argued that the correct approach to explaining physical phenomena should be based on classical physics, which is supposedly suppressed by the "false" theory of relativity and the "fake" quantum mechanics invented by the Jews. Lennard and Stark believed that the adequate description of reality was given by analyzing the experiment in the visual and intuitive terms of classical physics, which were undermined by the abstract "Jewish physics". They and their associates thought that the "correct classical" understanding of physics was given only to Armenians. Lennard and Stark's group called themselves "national researchers". They called quantum mechanics and relativity "the global Jewish bluff". In their opinion, in physics a "Jewish conspiracy" was organized against the truth.

Robert Yunk's version

The cover of "Seven times like the sun" by Robert Yonk
A book about the Nazi atomic program Hitler's secret atomic bomb

The Austrian journalist of Jewish origin Robert Yunek wrote about the history of the production of the American nuclear bomb in his book Brighter Than a Thousand Suns (1958) (the book was translated into Hebrew as "Shevattaiim Ka'or Hama ̶ Toldot Khori Atum", 1960):

"The men of science in the Weimar Republic did not behave with much seriousness in the excursions of some scholars into the murky regions of racist demagoguery. At the moment, achievements mainly determined a person's value. When the adherents of 'German physics' became activists, and did not continue to arouse attention in their scientific work, everyone treated their 'obnoxious loudness' with disdain. The wise Jewish physicists did not pay attention to the nationalist screams. They were rationalists. They believed that the absurd cannot win, but it won: the Nazis, the irrational, came to power and defeated reason. On April 17, 1933, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics of Jewish origin (1925), James Frank, who was forced to resign because of his origin, commented, 'We, the Germans of Jewish origin, are today considered foreigners and enemies in our country.'"

The emancipation of the Jews in the Weimar Republic was not complete - 'Germans of Jewish origin' were declared foreigners. Before his resignation, Frank worked as the head of the Institute for Experimental Physics at the University of Göttingen. After the expulsion of the Jewish scientists from the university, there was an episode involving the famous mathematician Professor David Hilbert, about which Robert Yonk recounts in his book:

"Those remaining in Göttingen, among them some great scholars, did not succeed in the days of the Third Reich to continue the great line of achievements from the XNUMXs. Above all, the mathematician Hilbert, who had already arrived in the past, felt this. About a year after the 'purging' in Göttingen, Hilbert sat at one of the official parties in the place of honor next to the new Minister of Education Rost. Rost was not careful with his language and asked the old man, 'Isn't that true, Mr. Professor, because your institute was greatly damaged by the departure of the Jews?' Hilbert, sharp-tongued and frank as usual, replied 'Much damage? He was not harmed, Mr. Minister, he simply no longer exists!'"   

In July 1937, Johannes Stark published an article in the official newspaper of the SS entitled "White Jews in Physics". He divided physics into the wrong Jewish theoretical, and the right Aryan experimental. The German theorist Heisenberg was one of the main objects of criticism. Stark accused him of not joining the Nazi Party, refusing to sign the pro-Hitler scientists' manifesto, which Stark initiated, and promoting Einstein's theory of relativity. Stark wrote "In 1933, Heisenberg, together with Einstein's students, Schrödinger and Dirac, received the Nobel Prize. This decision was made by the Nobel Committee with Jewish influence and demonstratively - it did precisely for Nazi Germany. Heisenberg belongs to the apostles of Judaism in German spiritual life. These people must disappear just like the Jews themselves." Heisenberg was very upset by the article, and in an attempt to justify himself, wrote a letter to Reichsführer SS Himmler. He was summoned for questioning at the Gestapo branch in Berlin. The investigation lasted almost a year. All charges were dropped. Heisenberg soon received prestigious appointments: he headed the Institute of Physics of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, and was a professor at the University of Berlin. He was free to travel throughout occupied Europe. In the summer of 1939 he was allowed to visit the United States. He headed the German nuclear project. Everything indicated that Heisenberg enjoyed the extraordinary confidence of the Nazi leadership.

In 1941, Hitler's divisions landed in North Africa, occupied Yugoslavia and Greece, and in September 1941 successfully attacked Moscow. Many in the Third Reich believed that victory was near. At this point, Heisenberg traveled as a representative of Aryan Germany to occupied Copenhagen, and met with his teacher, and his main colleague in the development of quantum mechanics, Niels Bohr, whose mother is Jewish.

Monument to the victims of the atomic bomb in Nagasaki, Japan. Illustration:
Monument to the victims of the atomic bomb in Nagasaki, Japan. Illustration:

After the Second World War, physics received the status of a "super science". The creation of the nuclear bomb gave physicists a special status given to people who know how to kill effectively. The ability to destroy is accepted with respect by those who were taught "thou shalt not murder!". But in 1941, physics was still one of the fields of knowledge that fascinates only a small number of eccentric, eccentric scientists, interested in solving beautiful, original, and interesting problems. The awareness that the authority of the physicists had an enormous destructive power found in the nuclei of the atoms had already strengthened, but in 1941 the physicists still did not know for sure whether it was possible to produce the nuclear bomb.

A complex technological challenge of the lethal use of nuclear energy has arisen. In 1941, a new puzzle was added to this puzzle: why did Heisenberg come to occupied Copenhagen? He understood that his own meeting, of the official representative of the occupiers, with the representative of the occupied nation, would not please his teacher Niels Bohr. What was the purpose of his mission? What happened at the meeting between Bohr and Heisenberg? One thing was clear - after this meeting nothing remained of the friendship between Bohr and Heisenberg.

Robert Yunek opens the description of the Bohr-Heisenberg meeting as follows: "At that time, Heisenberg was invited to lecture in occupied Copenhagen. It goes without saying that on this occasion he asked to meet his rabbi and friend Nils Bohr. Despite the danger facing him as a half-Jew, Bohr remained in the capital city of Denmark, as he knew that there was no protector other than him for the 'non-Aryan' workers at his institute."

In 1958, while Bohr was still alive (he died in 1962), Robert Jung presented the German nuclear researchers in his book as opponents of the construction of the bomb in the Third Reich: "He (Heisenberg, A.G.) and the scientists close to him sought to control the development of atomic research in Germany on by the management of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, as they feared that other physicists, devoid of moral responsibility, would approach the atomic bomb building for Hitler....On the contrary, these physicists successfully distracted the government institutions from such an inhuman weapon."

Yunek presents the supposed anti-Nazi position of Heisenberg and his German colleagues according to the story of the head of the German nuclear project, and gives Heisenberg's version of his pretended collaboration with the government of the Third Reich: "Only the pretender to collaborate may show real opposition." Yonk relies only on the testimony of Heisenberg, who, although he was not prosecuted for collaborating with the Nazis, felt the condemnation of the physicists.

Yunek presents Heisenberg's version of his meeting with Bohr as follows: "Unfortunately, the important conversation between Heisenberg and Bohr was conducted with bad luck from the beginning. Bohr learned that at a reception held in close proximity to Heisenberg, he defended the occupation of Poland by the Germans. Indeed, Heisenberg used to disguise himself and say in public other things than he said between friends, and he mostly did so abroad. But the zealous pursuer of truth Niels Bohr refused to recognize this two-faced game, which is the product of totalitarian coercion. When Heisenberg came to visit him, Bohr greeted his former beloved student with extreme reserve and even coldness." Since Heisenberg was aware that his reasoning in terms of "bad luck" did not sufficiently clarify the reason for the failure of the meeting with Bohr, he equipped Yunek with more sophisticated arguments: "First Heisenberg asked to explain to him the conditions of coercion to which the German physicists were subjected, and slowly began to talk carefully about a bomb the atom Unfortunately, he did not say outright that he and his group will do their best to prevent the construction of this weapon, and if the other side wants to do the same. With excessive caution, the two groped to test each other and missed the main point. When asked by Heisenberg if he believed in the possibility of building such a bomb, Bohr confidently replied 'No!', since he had heard nothing and a half about the progress of atomic research in England and the United States since April 1940, since his achievements were kept secret. Now Heisenberg took the trouble to convince him with many things that, to the best of his knowledge, it is possible to produce a weapon of this kind, and even in the near future, if much effort is devoted to it." Bohr read Yunek's book but remained silent.

Monument to the victims of the atomic bomb in Nagasaki, Japan
Monument to the victims of the atomic bomb in Nagasaki, Japan

The version of the play "Copenhagen"

In 1998, the play "Copenhagen" by the English playwright Michael Frayne was presented in London. The author describes the meeting between Bohr and Heisenberg in 1941. In 2000 Frayan received a prestigious award for his play as the best theater piece in the English language.

Poster for the play "Copenhagen" about the meeting between the two enemy atomic scientists von Heisenberg and Niels Bohr

The response to the play was tremendous. Many commentaries have been written about the course of the meeting and its effect on the development of the German nuclear project.

In the show, Heisenberg's version of the content of the meeting in Copenhagen was again presented - denying the fact that he calculated the critical mass, and proposing an international agreement between the physicists of the two sides fighting against the production of nuclear weapons.

Frayn is based on the passage from the book by Yonk. According to Yonk, at that meeting Heisenberg proposed a secret plan to Bohr, which the Dane did not support. The essence of the plan: an agreement between the physicists of the warring parties - the anti-German allies and Germany - to prevent the production of the nuclear bomb from their countries. Frayan does not insist on this version, in the text of the play there is also another interpretation, but there was uncertainty in the description of the meeting.

The success of the play was so great that Bohr's children decided in response to publish the drafts of their father's letters, which were not sent to Heisenberg in 1958. The letters were found in a copy of a book by Yunek, which Bohr read. Bohr's archives were to be published in 2012, fifty years after the scientist's death. Frayn's play accelerated the publication of the archives by ten years.

The historical truth

Forty years after Bohr's death and twenty-six years after Heisenberg's death (he died in 1976), light has been shed on the content of the mysterious conversation between the two colleagues, friends, and enemies:

"Dear Heisenberg! I read the book by Robert Yonk, 'Seven times as the light of day'... And I think I must tell you, how surprised I am that your memory betrays you…. I personally remember every word of our conversations, which took place against the background of the deep sadness and great tension we all felt here in Denmark. A special impression was made on me and Margaret (Bohr's wife, A.G.), as well as on everyone at the institute, with whom you and Weizzerker (the famous German physicist who came with Heisenberg to Copenhagen, A.G.) spoke, the absolute belief that Germany would win, and therefore It is foolish on our part to hope for a different outcome of the war and to exercise restraint when it comes to Germany's proposals for cooperation. I also clearly remember our conversation in my office at the institute, during which you spoke in vague terms, but so that your way gave me no reason to doubt: under your leadership, everything will be done in Germany to produce the atomic bomb.... I listened to you quietly, because we were talking about an important problem for all humanity, that despite our friendship, we were representatives of the two sides standing on both sides of the barricade in the decisive and deadly battle...".

In 1961, while in Moscow, Bohr told the Russian physicist of Jewish origin Arkady Migdal: "I understood him perfectly. He suggested that I cooperate with the Nazis."

After the war, Heisenberg was unable to consistently explain his arrival in Copenhagen. His explanations sounded contradictory and vague. However, it can be assumed that the scientist was very worried. In July 1941, a newspaper in Stockholm published news about the American experiment to produce the nuclear bomb. The newspaper wrote "According to the reports from London, experiments are being conducted in the United States to produce a new bomb. The explosive material of the bomb is uranium. With the energy contained in this chemical element, it is possible to make an explosion of unprecedented strength. The five kilogram bomb will make a crater one kilometer deep and forty kilometers in radius. All buildings within a hundred and fifty kilometers will be destroyed."

Heisenberg was very disturbed by this news and sought to discover the truth with the help of Bohr. Perhaps he decided to find out if Bohr was in contact with his British and American colleagues to produce the bomb. He may have wanted to find out if Bohr had found a way to make the nuclear bomb that Heisenberg didn't know about. He wanted to involve Bohr in the German nuclear project.

After the war, a legend was born according to which Heisenberg went to Bohr for advice on whether the participation of the physicists in the production of the deadly weapon was allowed. According to the German scientist, Bohr told him that the use of nuclear energy for military purposes is inevitable and justified. Over the years, Heisenberg changed his version, turning it into an attempt to hold an international organization of physicists against the production of nuclear weapons by the two opposing sides. He spread the legend about the opposition of the German physicists to Hitler, which he told Yonk: "In 1941, almost unknown 'peace explorations' were going to be held, whose job it was to prevent the production of vile weapons by means of a silence agreement between the atomic researchers of the two warring parties." However, after the publication of the book "Seven as the Light of the Day" Yonk changed his mind and called the version about the passive resistance of the German physicists to the Nazis a "myth".

Heisenberg was no different from other German patriots

Heisenberg's American biographer David Cassidy writes, "Heisenberg's views during this period were no different from those of other patriotic non-Jewish Germans in academia, and in the fields of culture and art. These social groups supported Germany's policies for the sake of the German nation. When the German army marched victoriously across Europe in the first years of the war, these circles welcomed the reports of the victories on the fronts."

It is possible that Heisenberg believed that if the war dragged on it could only be won with a nuclear bomb, which was the reason for his visit to Copenhagen. This interpretation was put forward by Bohr's son, Nobel laureate in physics (1975) Oga Bohr: "In a private conversation with my father, Heisenberg raised the question of the military use of atomic energy. My father was very reserved and expressed his skepticism in the face of the enormous technical difficulties to be faced. However, he got the impression that Heisenberg believes that the new weapon can and should decide the outcome of the war, if it is prolonged."

One of Bohr's close associates, Stefan Rosenthal, a Polish Jewish physicist, later a Danish nuclear scientist and expert in quantum mechanics, who worked at the Bohr Institute during Heisenberg's visit, recalled "I only remember that Bohr was very excited after the conversation, and that he quoted Heisenberg's words as follows: You must understand that if I take part in the project, it is because I am convinced that its execution is realistic.'' Heisenberg's wife Elizabeth wrote in her memoirs that her husband was constantly tormented by the thought that the Allies, with their many resources, could produce the bomb and use it against Germany.

In 1943, the German Nuclear Bomb Institute moved from Berlin, and disappeared from the eyes of American and British intelligence. No one knew what Heisenberg and his colleagues were doing in this field and where they were. It was only in May 1944 that American intelligence learned that the new Heisenberg laboratory was located near the city of Heingen, in the town of Heigerloch in southern Germany, and that funds had been allocated to the German uranium project to build a large cyclotron. This finding makes me think of the other reason for that meeting between Heisenberg and Bohr.

In 1941 there were only two cyclotrons in Europe. This device allows the separation of isotopes and the production of uranium 235 needed for the bomb. One cyclotron was in Paris with Frédéric Julio-Curie, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (1935), who opposes nuclear weapons, and the other cyclotron was at the Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. The Germans did not have a cyclotron. They needed not only a cyclotron, but also absolute secrecy around the uranium works. Heisenberg did not trust the cooperation in occupied Paris nor the preservation of secrecy in it. His close friend Nils Bohr worked in Copenhagen. Heisenberg hoped to convince him to join the German project and use the Danish cyclotron.

Heisenberg was wrong not only in calculating the critical mass, but also in his understanding of Bohr, and his uncompromising anti-Nazi position. Heisenberg's disdain for Bohr's critical attitude towards Nazism led to a crisis in the relationship between the two old friends and colleagues, and the destruction of one of the most fruitful collaborations in the history of physics. It was also a critical meeting for the Nazi nuclear project. Heisenberg lost a colleague who could change the course of his research, and possibly the course of the war. After the failure of the meeting with Bohr, Heisenberg demanded funding from the Minister of Armaments A. Speyer for the purpose of building a cyclotron (Speyer wrote about it in his memoirs), and in 1944 it turned out that he received this money.

Hitler did not understand the importance of a nuclear bomb

Heisenberg misjudged the feasibility of rapidly producing a nuclear bomb. Germany did not invest the necessary funds to develop the nuclear project. Hitler was fascinated by the production and use of the new German V-1 and V-2 rockets, which the Nazis fired at London. The damage caused to the British capital by the German missiles was incomparably lower than the British bombing of German cities. Hitler and his advisors, who of course could not have Jews in their ranks, did not understand the great significance of nuclear weapons for the outcome of the war. The Führer made a mistake that is perhaps equal in importance to that made by Napoleon during his war with England. Then a young American inventor came to the Emperor of France and offered to build a steam fleet with which Napoleon could land in England, despite the unstable weather. Ships without sails? This seemed unrealistic to the emperor, and he banished the inventor of the steam fleet, Robert Fulton. England was saved. The history of the 19th century could have developed differently, if not for Napoleon's short-sightedness. The story of this historical episode convinced US President Roosevelt to start the nuclear project.

Michael Frain pointed out a moral paradox: the anti-Nazi Bohr later participated in the nuclear project in Manhattan, which resulted in the death of 120 thousand people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, while the German patriot Heisenberg, who officially worked for the Nazi war machine, did nothing that would lead to the death of even one person. Both of Fraian's theses are wrong. Heisenberg tried to build the bomb, but failed. On top of that, Frayne found symmetry where it couldn't be. Collaborating with Hitler was an incomparably immoral act.

On December 14, 1946, Albert Einstein wrote to his German colleague Arnold Sommerfeld "After the Germans murdered my Jewish brothers in Europe, I will have nothing to do with them." The work on the American nuclear project was a means of fighting Nazism. One of the founders of quantum mechanics, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (1954) Max Born, a German Jew, wrote "The exiled physicists knew that there would be no salvation if the Germans were the first to produce the nuclear bomb. Even Einstein, who was a pacifist all his life, shared this fear, and allowed himself to be convinced by some young Hungarian physicists who wanted to warn President Roosevelt."

After the war, many researchers at international conferences avoided talking to Heisenberg. Bohr did not agree to cooperate with his student, colleague, and beloved friend, because he saw him and himself as representatives of the two opposing sides, who were fighting for life and death in the battle for or against Nazism. The spirit of hatred and contempt towards the Germans, not only the Nazis, is felt in Einstein's letter to Otto Hahn on January 28, 1949: "The crime of the Germans is the most terrible crime ever committed in the history of the so-called civilized nations. The behavior of the German intellectuals - if you consider them a group - was no better than the behavior of the mob."

Heisenberg was concerned about the fact that the Americans, who were lagging behind the German physicists, would nevertheless succeed in being the first to produce the nuclear bomb. He did not think about the role of the Jews in the tragic success of the project for him. He did not understand that the Jewish scientists - humiliated, deprived of home and work, persecuted and expelled by their countrymen from occupied Europe, the people who lost their families in the Nazi death camps - would become a vibrant element, an enzyme, the driving force behind the American nuclear project. Heisenberg, who made a mistake in calculating the critical mass of uranium, did not correctly estimate the importance of the critical mass of the Jewish physicists, who fled the Nazi persecution to the United States, and worked against his country because of their destroyed families, the ruined careers, and the trampling of their human and professional dignity, which were caused thanks to the cannibalistic doctrine of his employers. Heisenberg underestimated the power of "Jewish physics", which was condemned by his Aryan colleagues and compatriots, Nobel laureates Philip Lennard and Johannes Stark. The famous European Jewish physicists Leo Szilard, Albert Einstein, Eugene Wigner, Edward Teller, James Frank, Samuel Abraham Goudsmitt, John von Neumann, Rudolf Peierles, Otto Frisch, Viktor Weiskopf, David Bohm, Felix Bloch, and The half-Jews" Niels Bohr and his daughter Hans, along with the famous American Jews who participated in the project, Robert Oppenheimer and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman, made a huge contribution to the success of the project. Among them were seven Nobel laureates. The German Aryan physicists were convinced that they were far superior to the Americans in developing the nuclear weapons project. They underestimated the "Jewish danger".

It was the Jewish immigrants from Europe who initiated the Manhattan Project

Laura, the Jewish wife of one of the main scientific advisors of the American nuclear project, Enrico Fermi, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (1938), in her book "The Atoms in the Family" (1954), stated that the Jewish immigrants from Europe, and not the natives of the United States, initiated the project: " This is why the first warning to President Roosevelt came from people like Einstein, Szilard, Wigner, and Teller, and the physicists who were born and raised in America, continued to sit in their 'ivory tower'. These foreigners knew very well what the militant state was and also what totalitarianism meant, while the Americans lived only according to the ideas of democracy and free initiative." Robert Yonk also writes about this Jewish concern in his book: "The anxiety they were a part of was the result of the fear that Hitler would be the first to develop the terrible weapon. Their fear is quite understandable when you remember what kind of bullying and persecution they had to experience following the Nazi student attacks in 1932 and 1933. They never managed to recover from the shock they received from the outbreak of bigotry, the shock destined to make history."

Leo Szilard was the first to act. His letter, signed by Einstein, was an important link in the efforts to convince the US president to establish the nuclear project. Szilard was the first to write a letter against the use of nuclear weapons in 1945. Szilard's first letter started the uprising of the "subhumans", the Jewish physicists, against the Nazi "supermen". The "inferiors" who are not Aryans, stood against the "pure" Germans. Their zoological, animalistic hatred of the Jews returned to the Nazis like a boomerang. The world battle of the Jewish physicists against Nazism took place in Los Alamos. The pacifists gave up pacifism, and realized that they fight the devil with the devil's weapons. At the core of the atomic mission, which in a certain sense could have turned out to be a conspiracy of global proportions, was a struggle for the lives of humanity. On the scales of history stood the fear of the existence of millions of people, and among other things, on the agenda was the decision of the Jewish question: whether the Holocaust of the Jews of Europe would continue and whether it would spread to the Jews of the other continents.

In the work on the Manhattan Project it is possible to identify the only real Jewish conspiracy in history, the "plot" of the Jews against the Nazis, who turned the natives of their country of Jewish origin into foreigners in Europe, and in general on the face of the earth. This was the Jewish plot that was not observed by the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion".

More of the topic in Hayadan:

6 תגובות

  1. In the scientific race to develop a nuclear bomb, once again, we were late.
    The Germans rushed and murdered, even when they knew that their loss in the war was almost known. In advance.
    The hatred among most European nations for the Jews has passed every reasonable attempt to explain it.
    But it is a fact. 6 million murdered. The atomic bomb did nothing to destroy European Jewry.
    The war of minds in this context is not much more than a historical anecdote. Interesting, not at all relevant to the murderous catastrophe.

  2. If there was historical justice, the Americans would have completed the Manhattan Project a few years earlier and wiped the main German cities off the map: Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, etc. and forced the bastards to surrender. So many human lives would have been spared in Europe and also of Americans and the Allies.

  3. Thanks for the article - I finally have a photo of the meeting in Copenhagen.
    And a small addition: Leo Szilard wrote in 1934 the first patents on the construction of a nuclear reactor and a nuclear bomb.

  4. Robert Otto Frisch refused to deal with nuclear physics after the war. He and his aunt Lisa Meitner are buried in Britain. In fact, she and not Otto Hahn should have received a Nobel Prize...

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