**The non-Abelian anions are quasi-particles with fascinating statistical and topological properties. Until recently, these particles were only theoretical, but now a research group from Harvard University has created them for the first time in the laboratory. The discovery may encourage companies in the field of quantum computing to use non-Abelian anions to create durable qubits**

In the standard model of particle physics, there are two types of particles: bosons, which have whole spin, and fermions, which have fractional spin in multiples of half. The bosons are known as the force-carrying particles, including photons, gluons, but also the famous Higgs particle. In contrast, the fermions make up the matter in the universe - the electrons, quarks and more (along with more complex structures such as the protons and neutrons) are all fermions with half spin.

Besides the spinor property, the spin-statistics theorem shows that when two particles are exchanged, a phase can accumulate. For bosons, the phase is 0, or in other words, no phase is accumulated. On the other hand, for fermions a phase of size pi is accumulated, which is equal to the multiplication of the wave function by minus one. Those who know a little about the Torah Galit know that this phase is a wave feature and thanks to it interesting patterns of struggle are created. In optics, when light rays overlap with each other, the phase difference can determine the measured illuminance. In quantum, different phases may change the measured probability amplitude.

Already in the last century, physicists knew that this is a phenomenon arising from the fact that our universe is three-dimensional. On the other hand, in a two-dimensional world, other types of particles can exist, including the anions. The name anyons, is the bread of the pair of words any one, and was chosen to describe the fact that in the exchange of two anions a general phase is accumulated, not just zero or pi (note that these are not the anions, negatively charged atoms). The anions were theoretically discovered in the 1980s by Frank Volchek (a physicist who won the Nobel Prize for discoveries in the field of the strong force) and were later used to explain the brittle Hall effect.

Now, a research group led by Ashwin and Vishwanath from Harvard University and in collaboration with the Quantinuum company observed for the first time in the world non-Abelian anions, a certain type of anions that until now were completely theoretical. The discovery was published in the prestigious journal Nature last week and is already making waves in the quantum computing industry. Compared to those described in the standard model, the anions (and the non-Abelian anions) are quasi-particles. The phrase quasi-particles comes to emphasize the fact that these are not elementary particles and that they are created as a result of a unique excitation in matter. The excitation creates an interesting quantum state that looks like a particle but decays over time.

**What is the difference between "normal" anions (bleb) and non-bleb anions? **

Besides the fact that the anions can only exist on two-dimensional surfaces, the accumulated phase from the exchange of the two particles can be any complex number whose absolute magnitude is equal to one. This statistic is called the Abelian statistic, and basically it says that the order of exchange of anion pairs doesn't really matter, the overall phase will be the same.

In contrast, non-Abelian anions are more complex because the order of substitution is significant. Suppose we have three non-valent anions arranged in a row. If we exchange the pair of anions in positions 1-2 first and then the pair of anions in positions 2-3, we would get a different result than if we had performed the reverse exchange, that is, if we had exchanged 2-3 first and then 1-2. In a sense, these are particles with "some memory". The memory is expressed in the path that the anions move.

Apart from the fact that they have been observed for the first time, the enthusiasm of the scientific community for non-Abelian anions stems from the enormous application potential in the worlds of quantum computing. It turns out that the paths of the anions in space create interesting topologies and through them it is possible to encode noise-resistant information. Unlike the delicate and noisy qubits, the non-Abelian anions are relatively stable. In addition, thanks to the orbital memory, it is possible to use them to create high-quality qubits that can be used even in the system exposed to errors.

"The use of the exotic particles paves a safe path to building a stable quantum computer, non-Abelian anions solve many problems arising from noisy qubits," claims Tantiwsedkarn, one of the authors of the article.

To create the non-Abelian anions, the researchers used the Quantinuum ion trap containing 32 ytterbium nuclei (27 usable qubits in this computer). Thanks to the measurement effect in quantum mechanics, the researchers performed a smart measurement on those ions and caused the processor to collapse into the desired phase. The researchers then demonstrated that they were able to move the anions, demonstrating that it had non-Abelian properties and claiming that they could be used to perform calculations.

In the article in question, the researchers celebrated the discovery and said that "the use of measurement to create a quantum state is no longer science fiction. The non-Abelian anions have become physical objects that are observed in laboratories.'

For the scientific article click here

**Do you have a scientific question? You are welcome to chat with me at the email address: noamphysics@gmail.com**

**More of the topic in Hayadan:**

- Warm, warming, energetic - and environmentally friendly
- Matter and anti-matter - matter and its opposite
- Intel is testing silicon "spin qubits" for the realization of quantum computing
- We are close to finishing the development of a 50 qubit quantum computer chip
- Molecular spintronics - a new technology for quantum computing

## 3 תגובות

What are you giving us exploded concepts that for us is gibberish. I didn't understand a single word. One big brain confusion. Nonsense in juice.

The Holy One, blessed be He, can do more than all the nonsense written here!!

Only our Father in heaven!

What a beauty, kudos to the honorable king

We'll see