Researchers from the Australian National University have developed a model that is the most comprehensive view of the history of the universe. The study highlights the change that the universe underwent from the moment of its formation 13.8 billion years ago to its current state, full of objects such as protons, atoms and galaxies
The most comprehensive look at the history of the universe ever produced has been produced by researchers at the Australian National University.
Lead researcher Dr. Charlie Linweaver from the university said he set out to understand where all the objects in the universe came from.
"When the universe began 13.8 billion years ago in the Big Bang, there were no objects such as protons, atoms, humans, planets, stars or galaxies. Now the universe is full of such objects," he said.
"The relatively simple answer to the question of where they came from, is that as the universe cooled, all these objects condensed from a hot background."
To show this process in the simplest way, the researchers created two graphs. The first shows the temperature and density of the universe as it expanded and cooled. The second records the mass and size of all objects in the universe.
The result is the most comprehensive chart ever created of all the objects in the universe.
Former university researcher Vihan Patal said the project raised some important questions.
"Parts of this diagram are not physically possible - where objects cannot be denser than black holes, or so small that quantum mechanics obscures the very essence of what it really means to be a single object."
The researchers also emphasize that the boundaries of the chart and what may lie beyond it remain a great mystery.
"At the smaller end, where quantum mechanics and general relativity meet, is the smallest possible object - an instanton. This diagram suggests that the universe may have started as an instanton, which has a specific size and mass, rather than a singularity, which is a hypothetical point of infinite density and temperature," Fatal said.
"At the larger end, the diagram suggests that if there was nothing - absolute vacuum - beyond the observable universe, our universe would be a large, low-density black hole. It's a little scary, but we have good reason to believe that's not the case."
The researchers describe the condensation process of objects as phase transitions from a higher order of symmetry to a lower order as the universe cools. That is, initially the universe was "mixed" and more symmetrical, and with cooling, order and asymmetry was created.
They explain that the objects condensed when their binding energy exceeded the energy of the background. For example, the protons and neutrons were created when the binding energy of the strong force exceeded the background energy in the quark-gluon plasma.
The researchers note that today the universe is full of objects such as protons, atoms, stars and galaxies, whose density is higher than the average density of the universe.
They calculated and recorded the change in time of the universe's density and its temperature to give a quantitative context to this series of phase transitions.
More of the topic in Hayadan: