**Physicist Hikida from the University of Tokyo and his colleagues developed the dual model for Einstein's theory of gravity in three-dimensional de Sitter space. This is a significant step towards a model that will faithfully describe nature, i.e. the physics of quantum gravity under an expanding universe with a positive cosmological constant**

In the nineties of the last century, evidence accumulated that the rate of expansion of the universe increased with time. As far as we understand, the accelerated expansion is due to energy filling the space. This energy is sometimes referred to as dark energy, vacuum energy and sometimes the cosmological constant, depending on the scientific context. The cosmological constant is very important in the evolution of the universe and its value determines its curvature. At the same time as the extensive boom in cosmology, theoretical physicists worked hard to build a theory that contains under one umbrella the principles of quantum mechanics and general relativity. This problem has given rise to a wide range of teachings that claim to be "the teachings of everything", but not all of them have gained equal popularity. The scientific challenge does not fall only in finding a consistent combination between the teachings, but in one that describes nature faithfully, with a positive cosmological constant. An example of such a theory appears in the theory of strings which is aided by the "compactification" of dimensions, that is, with the help of minimization and sewing (closing) of additional dimensions. The magnitudes of the smallest dimensions provide a natural scale for the dark energy that fills our four-dimensional universe. Unfortunately, even if these universes are more or less stable, they contain properties that are not realistic.

## What is AdS\CFT duality?

Alongside the attempt to build a theory that combines Einstein's quantum mechanics and gravitation, he developed a new idea that saw both as two sides of the same coin. The idea commonly known as the principle of holography is not new in physics, but its integration into quantum gravity theories is relatively modern. With the help of this principle, quantum gravitational theories can be converted into quantum conformal theories without gravity in a universe with one less dimension. The surprising connection, which has not yet been fully proven, emerged from several directions and deepened our understanding of black holes. The revealed duality has one obvious advantage and an even more obvious disadvantage. The advantage is that quantum theories of gravity with strong interactions, that is, theories that we do not have the ability to analyze directly, are converted into quantum theories without gravity with weak interactions, theories that are relatively easy to analyze. The disadvantage of this duality is hidden in its professional terminology - physicists call it the AdS\CFT correspondence where AdS is an abbreviation for anti de Sitter space, meaning a universe with negative curvature and CFT is an abbreviation for conformal field theories. The details are currently less important, but since duality was only discovered in a universe with a negative cosmological constant it does not describe nature (which contains a positive cosmological constant, albeit a very small one). Over the years, theorists have puzzled over finding the correct duality linking gravitational and quantum theory in a universe with positive curvature (often referred to as the dS\CFT correspondence). now In a published article In the journal Physical Review Letters, University of Tokyo physicist Hikida and his colleagues proposed a duality for Einstein's theory of gravity in a three-dimensional expanding universe with a positive cosmological constant. Hikida's duality joins a very narrow list of dualities in space with positive curvature (which do not necessarily describe our universe).

## On the principle of holography and the formation of time

To understand the latest development I want to refine the duality more deeply. Not for nothing is it called the principle of holography. The idea assumes that all the information of a four-dimensional universe (let's say) with gravity on its edge, that is, in one less dimension, can be encoded with the help of quantum theory without gravity. Along with the Beckenstein-Hawking entropy, this principle laid the foundations for a relatively new branch of science known as quantum computing or information. In fact, the idea implies that gravity (and along the way an additional spatial dimension) is an essentially non-fundamental phenomenon, which is the result of imaging, or holography, just as holograms display three-dimensional images with the help of information encoded on a two-dimensional surface.

Instead of assuming that another spatial dimension emerges according to the principle of holography, Hikida's duality actually assumes that the timeline is an emergent phenomenon. In order to facilitate the readers' attempt to imagine the origin of time, Hikida and his colleagues interpreted this with the help of the emergence of quantum mechanics in which time is a critical element for its existence (remember, the Schrödinger equation links the energy of the system to its evolution in time). This essay helped formulate Hikida's duality - quantum gravity theories in space with positive curvature dual to non-quantum conformal theories that do not include the timeline (apparently, Hikida found only one example in three dimensions).

In his last article, Hikida chose to describe Einstein's gravity in three dimensions (2 spatial and one temporal) since the mathematical tools in two dimensions are richer and simpler to use. We will only note that gravity in three dimensions differs from gravity in four dimensions in several aspects, for example, there are no local gravitational waves in three dimensions. Instead there are ripples present at the edge of the universe that do not propagate into it. He did not go into the depth of the mathematical details, but it is worth noting that Hikida and his colleagues used analytical tools to find evidence linking the two teachings. In addition, the researchers showed that the dual theory of relativistic gravity is not unitary (that is, it does not maintain the basic principle in quantum mechanics that at any given moment the sum of the probability of being in all possible states is one), and therefore they concluded that it is not quantum.

It is likely that we are still far from finding a duality that describes nature, but there is no doubt that this is an important step towards the desired model.

**Do you have a question or topic you would like me to write about? Contact me at noamphysics@gmail.com**

**More of the topic in Hayadan:**

## Comments

This is an imitation of the 2011 Spinoza Prize winning work, with another article in 2016

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1611.02269.pdf

Eric Verlind is the source in the development of a theory based on string theory - just like the one described here neither right nor left. This is a pure copy.

The scope experiment that discovered a new geometry

https://youtu.be/u2vamaSj-mw

If the sloppy and stupid scoping experiment is the highlight, what's at the bottom?

The Lord preserves the children.

How many "continuous quantitative things" are there in the world?

Original article by A. Asbar Aetzbar

There are 5 "continuous quantitative things" in the world

These are length, area, volume, time and energy.

The length, area, and volume create the geometric occupation

Time and energy create the physical occupation.

The five continuous quantitative things are what create the exact sciences, whose names are geometry and physics.

A continuous quantity has a distinct sign. Whatever continuous quantity we choose, there is always a continuous quantity greater than it, and there is also a continuous quantity smaller than it.

A continuous quantitative thing is always between zero amount and infinite amount.

Quantity is the name of natural knowledge, which exists in every person.

Everyone knows that the amount of length of the eraser stick is greater than the amount of length of a pencil. Everyone knows that the area of the room's floor is greater than the area of the surface of the wall in the room.

Everyone knows that the volume of a football is greater than the volume of a tennis ball. Everyone also knows that the amount of surface area of a tennis ball is greater than the amount of surface area of a ping pong ball.

Quantity is the name of a natural knowledge that exists in every human being, and all humans use this knowledge without any doubt.

So far we have known 3 "continuous quantitative things" from the geometric field, and they are length, area, and volume. They will be joined by two continuous quantitative things from the physical realm, and they are time and energy.

Let's start on time

The listener to his heartbeat, detects an amount of something between every two heartbeats.

For this quantitative thing, a name of the combination of the letters זמן is chosen.

The questioner...what is time? Get a very simple answer

Time is an arbitrary name chosen for "a continuous quantitative thing" (abbreviated DKR)

As long is an arbitrary name chosen for "a continuous quantitative thing" (abbreviated as

Time is a completely different thing from length, but these two things are important..

The physical occupation began with the continuous quantitative thing called time, and it will continue with the second continuous quantitative thing, called energy.

The stair climber will recognize another continuous quantitative thing called energy.

In the action of the leg muscles, we will climb one step and get a little tired.

And if we climb 10 stairs we will get more tired,

And if we climb 100 stairs we will get much more tired.

The feeling of fatigue has a quantitative meaning, which translates it into an amount of energy.

Now it is already clear that the exact sciences are perceived in a very simple way, and this

With the help of the natural knowledge of the quantity inherent in man.

Geometry deals with length, area, and volume.

Whereas physics deals with time and energy,

Conclusion: There is no fundamental difference between geometry and physics, and the method of investigating geometry can be adapted to the investigation of physics.

And if it is clear and understandable that geometry has geometric shapes, then physical shapes can be attributed to physics. Geometry is similar to physics, because they are made up of continuous quantitative things that exist in the world.

Length, area, and volume in geometry, time and energy in physics.

Man recognized that because "a continuous quantitative thing" is a very important thing,

And that person knew that he had a natural knowledge of quantity.

Therefore, it should not be surprising that man invented a "language of quantities" that is especially suitable for the exact sciences.

It is about the language of numbers, where each number represents an ethereal quantity.

The language of quantities was created in the beginning as a necessity of practical life that requires counting, one, two, three, four, and so on.

In the next step, the language of quantities developed, and it was able to present with a good level of accuracy, also continuous quantities of length, area, volume, time and energy.

This language is called mathematics, and the corresponding Hebrew name for it is kamatan.

Now in science there is a tripartite creation that includes geometry, physics, mathematics.

It only remains to add that time and energy have a passive side and an active side.

The active aspect of time is the one familiar to all of us, and it exists only in human consciousness. (It does not exist in physical reality)

The passive aspect of time exists right in physical reality, and it fills infinite space. The passive time is absolute rest and absolute cold, and is the intermediary

where the light moves. The stars move within the passive time and it does not interfere with their movement.

Energy also has a passive side and an active side.

The active aspect of energy has many forms, which fulfill the law of quantitative conservation.

The passive side of energy has a single side, and does not participate in the law of conservation.

The passive aspect of energy appears when you put a stone on a spring lying on the ground, and the spring contracts a little.

Combining amounts of passive energy and passive time creates the substance.

The material is not a quantitative thing, and is in the nature of a physical form.

Gold, nitrogen, hydrogen, are physical forms.

Matter is not a quantitative concept and has no quantitative gravity.

The law of conservation of energy explains the phenomenon of free fall with increasing speed, and gravity is not needed for this explanation.

This basic description is sufficient for understanding the exact sciences.

The extension appears in the publications of A. Asbar in the mathematics forum of Taboz, Bidan,

in Davidson, and in many articles on the Internet over the past 20 years.

A. Asbar's book summarizing 30 years of free independent research will soon appear.

The highlight of the study is the scope experiment.

A. Asbar

7/2022

Asbar continues to make fun of himself in front of the entire forum with his usual displays of ignorance and stupidity.

law of energy convertion? Da? After all, if the amount of energy stored in the falling stone in his silly example is the same as the amount of energy needed to crush the trunk of the tree, what happens on the moon where the energy needed to raise the stone is much lower than on Earth. Does it take less energy to crush the tree on the moon? Not to mention the space where there is no gravity at all and no energy is needed to raise the stone to any distance.

It's fine, Esbar will never answer this argument or any argument but will continue with his megalomaniacal delusions about comparing him to Galileo..

A small question from Galileo could have prevented the emergence of Newtonian gravity.

Galileo Galilei dealt with the phenomenon of free fall, and he determined that all bodies that are released at a certain moment will fall with the same increasing speed, and a body will not attain a body.

But they could also fall at a certain constant speed, and a body would not catch up with a body.

Why does an increasing speed of free fall appear in reality, and not constant.

Amazingly, Galili did not ask this question, and if he had asked it, there is no doubt that he would have discovered a physical law of nature - the law of conservation of energy.

Galili knew that the practical experiment is the final arbiter in science, and he would take a large stone and slowly climb the stairs to the 3rd floor of the Tower of Pisa.

There he would release the stone and it would fall with increasing speed, crushing a dry tree trunk that was lying on the ground.

Interesting Galili would say to himself, I went up with the stone to the 3rd floor of the tower and I felt an amount of fatigue. If I had to smash this tree trunk with the blows of an ax, I would feel an amount of fatigue,

Maybe these amounts of fatigue are equal? A thought crossed his mind...

And here Galili was not lazy, he went down to the ground, picked up the stone that crushed the trunk of the tree, and went up to the 7th floor of the Tower of Pisa.

On this climb to the 7th floor, Galili felt a greater amount of fatigue.

Now he released the stone, and it fell down with increasing speed, crushing a larger dry tree trunk that was on the ground.

Interesting, Galili said to himself, if I had to crush this tree trunk with ax blows, I would get much more tired than in the previous experiment.

And here Galili would get excited and say: I understand why the stone falls at an increasing speed, and not at a certain fixed speed

The fall with increasing speed is intended to achieve equality in the amount of fatigue of raising a stone to a certain height, and the amount of fatigue of crushing tree trunks, which the falling stone damages.

In this way, Galili would have discovered the law of conservation of energy.

The energy of the height of a stone is replaced by the mechanical energy of its impact on the ground.

The law of conservation of energy was discovered more than 100 years after Galileo, but it was very appropriate for Galileo - the experimenter - to discover the law of conservation of energy.

Newton also dealt with the phenomenon of free fall, but theoretically.

He saw that an apple was falling down with increasing speed, and he determined that there is a mysterious force emanating from the earth, and its job is to drop down with increasing speed, any object that is released from it (an orange, a grain of rice, a large stone, a watermelon... and so on)

If such a force does exist, then the law of conservation of energy does not exist.

Since the law of conservation of energy does exist, then Newton's gravitational force does not exist.

And if gravity doesn't exist, the history of science needs to be rewritten.

If Galileo had discovered the law of conservation of energy, Newton would never have introduced the idea of gravity of matter, and the science of physics would have progressed directly, from Galili to Asbar.

A small question from Galileo could have prevented the emergence of Newtonian gravity.

Galileo Galilei dealt with the phenomenon of free fall, and he determined that all bodies

that are released at a certain moment will fall with the same increasing speed, and a body will not catch up with a body.

If Galili were to ask - why does speed increase and not a constant speed? He would discover the law of conservation of energy,

To discover the law of conservation of energy, Galili would take a large stone, go up to the 3rd floor of the Tower of Pisa, and release the stone. Its fall with increasing speed would have crushed a dry tree trunk that was lying on the ground.

Interesting, he would say, I went up the stairs to the 3rd floor of the tower and got tired.

If I had to crush the stem of time with the blows of an ax, I would get tired.

Now I understand why the stone falls with increasing speed.

The fall with increasing speed is intended to achieve equality in the amounts of fatigue, of raising a stone to the 3rd floor, and crushing a tree trunk.

If I went up with that stone to the 7th floor I would be much more tired, but the impact of it hitting the ground could crush a large tree trunk lying on the ground, and this tree trunk would require a large amount of fatigue from me to crush it.

Here Galili discovered the law of conservation of energy.

The energy of the height of a stone is replaced by the mechanical energy of its impact on the ground.

Newton, who did not know the law of conservation of energy, invented a mysterious force that erupts

from the earth, and his occupation is to drop stones with increasing speed.

If such a force does exist, then the law of conservation of energy does not exist.

Since the law of conservation of energy does exist, then Newton's gravitational force does not exist.

And if gravity doesn't exist, the history of science needs to be rewritten.

Come on, don't worry, the grazing break is over, back to the barn.

Guy listen carefully, Asbar does not laugh at anyone, he is really serious.

Maybe it sounds strange "new physics with a new type of time" but Asbar stands behind his every word, and his book will soon be published..

In the new physics there is no gravity for matter, and matter is not a quantitative concept.

In the new physics, matter is a physical form, gold, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, etc.

They are physical forms built from combinations of amounts of passive time and energy.

The new physics will be a direct continuation of Galili, (who is supposed to discover the law of conservation of energy in a free fall experiment) and it will skip over Newton and Einstein.

I don't understand what you want from the author of the article

Start with "Thank you Noam" for someone who deeply understands the mathematics that makes up everything we think we understand from the stories - trying to explain to us somehow.

If you also understood fragments of ideas - that is exciting. Who does not understand what it is to replace the omission of gravity with the omission of time from the model? It's in Hebrew .

And finally - of course I didn't fully understand either. What to do ? They say thank you and ask for a non-Nazi explanation.

Oh, and we got that one from the Matrix for free, oh my God, the one who tries to annoy you and succeeds. He laughs at you, which is incomprehensible. Going all out for the Ig Nobel.

The poor state of theoretical physics stems from a belief in the existence of the law of conservation of quantity of matter, similar to the law of conservation of quantity of energy.

Energy is a quantitative thing, and the law of quantitative conservation applies to it.

The energy can change appearances, but the quantity is always conserved.

Matter is not a quantitative thing, so the law of quantitative conservation cannot apply to it.

Matter is a physical form, and the concept of quantity does not apply to form.

Gold is the name of a physical form, built from the combination of amounts of energy and passive time.

This combination is called matter, but this combination is not a quantitative thing.

Newton stated that matter is quantitative, and all physicists accepted his statement.

This acceptance resulted in the poor state of accepted theoretical physics.

Newton also stated that matter has a gravitational force, which is proportional to its quantity.

A lot of matter - a lot of gravity, a little matter - a little gravity.

Today it is clear that the poor state of theoretical physics is due to the acceptance of the Newtonian view.

The neural view offers a correction, with the help of a new and revolutionary physical concept, which is the passive time.

Matter is a physical form, created by combining amounts of passive time and energy.

Passive time is a new and revolutionary physical concept.

Passive time actually exists in reality, in contrast to active time that exists only in a person's consciousness, and it disappears as soon as you think about it.

Don't get upset, he has a ponytail all over his head and doesn't understand a thing and a half about physics.

This article would never have come into existence if Newton had known the law of conservation of energy formulated 100 years later.

There is a simple answer to the question "why does a stone fall with acceleration when you let go of it" without using gravity.

Answer: The stone falls with a constant acceleration, in order to comply with the law of conservation of energy.

At this moment the material with mass disappears from the world, and is therefore not a quantitative concept.

At this moment matter is revealed as a physical form, built of passive time and energy.

At that moment all the particles that were invented disappeared from the world, and matter became continuous.

At this moment, a new physics was born, and it is neural physics.

They said it before - and thanks to the sayers -

The article is not accessible and therefore has no value for me.

I'm sorry. I came to learn and open up as the site allows to do abundantly and generously. But you shut up. Too bad.

I did not understand anything from this article.

Maybe you will also do some articles for Bibi voters?

got it.

Is it the most simple?

As if like this, there are no longer strings, no substance, there is form, no quantities, there are many concepts, there is no understanding, there is arrogance.

Apologize in advance.

Physical research mistakenly began with the question of whether matter is continuous, or discrete.

Can a gold ring be divided into smaller and smaller parts, or is there a limit to the division.

If physical research had begun properly, it would have attempted to answer the question

"What is matter", and then he would arrive at the answer... matter is a physical form.

The similarity between a geometric shape and a physical shape will be shown like this.

If a geometric form results from the addition of quantities of the length of a closed line, containing a quantity of area, then a physical form results from the addition of quantities of passive time and energy.

The two exact sciences, geometry and physics, are similar to each other,

In geometry there are geometric shapes such as triangle, square, rectangle, circle

And in physics there are physical forms such as gold, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen.

Energy is a well-known and accepted physical concept,

And passive time is an innovative physical concept, which must be accepted.

These two concepts are continuous, and from them comes continuous matter, which can be infinitely divided.

This philosophizing - it is a form of masturbation - brings no benefit except to the philosophist. There are probably far too many research budgets for physicists who don't really know how to research, and invent theories that cannot be explained, and cannot be understood... You can take solace in the fact that in X years no one will remember that they once published nonsense with a bloated expression of importance...

The mistakes in the study of the exact sciences, geometry and physics.

In geometry there are two mistakes.

The first error says that pi is constant in all circles, when it varies between 3.1416 and 3.164

The second mistake says that a line can be described by a collection of points.

A line has two data, an actual length and a shape, and a collection of points has no actual length, and of course no shape.

In physics there are two mistakes and both of them stem from accepting Newton's concept of matter.

This concept means that matter is a quantitative concept, and has quantitative gravity.

That is... a lot of matter - a lot of gravity, a little matter - a little gravity.

But matter is not a quantitative concept, and it has no gravity.

The material must be perceived as a physical form, similar to a geometric form.

Shape is not a quantitative concept, and it is impossible to talk about a big or small shape.

The similarity between a geometric shape and a physical shape will be shown like this.

If a geometric form results from the addition of quantities of the length of a closed line, containing a quantity of area, then a physical form results from the addition of quantities of passive time and energy.

The two exact sciences, geometry and physics, are similar to each other,

In geometry there are geometric shapes such as triangle, square, rectangle, circle

And in physics there are physical forms such as gold, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen.

Energy is a well-known and accepted physical concept,

And passive time is an innovative physical concept, which must be accepted.

These two concepts are continuous, and from them comes continuous matter

The time has come to abandon the quantitative substance with the force of gravity, and to abandon its particle perception, and to move to a continuous substance perceived as a physical form.

Walla..

Truly the theory of Hikida succeeds in constituting the Torah of the Torah. What others did not, he succeeded with his theory.

The super string theory is losing ground and I completely lost direction from the article....

The explanations about the explanations made me run. Make an appointment with a psychologist under the heading -

frustration!!

It is simply impossible for laymen who really want to consume knowledge...

After all, the average IQ does not exceed 110...

Well... this figure should also be taken into account when explaining. It is not fair that only those who are good at physics will be able to enjoy the new discoveries and juicy theories...

In the meantime, Schrödinger's cat escaped me...

Someone crush it!!!!??

pleasantness,

You are writing to experts in the field and this is not the forum.

Although I understand a thing or two about it as a physicist and I know most of the concepts you mention. I have no idea what you are trying to explain and I am not willing to go to such lengths to try, after all this is a popular science website and not a scientific newspaper, people read here for fun. You need to simplify the explanation so that it is readable even by the reasonable person who reads this site, add a reference to the article for those who want it. I guess it passed the editor because there is no real editing here or he had no idea what he was reading and threw up his hands.

Anyway, my rule of thumb is that this is probably not how she would explain it to grandma.

Wow Noam, this was an article that was too harsh in terms, for those who are not in the loop.

Hikida & Co.'s article is very, very theoretical, a product of string theory which itself is in the midst of a slow dying process. In my humble opinion, mathematical manipulations will not bring us to a deeper understanding like new means of observation (eg gravitational waves and JWST)

In reality there is no gravity for matter, and matter is not a quantitative concept.

According to Newton, a lot of matter - a lot of gravity,

But the substance is not a quantitative concept, and it is impossible to apply the concepts much or little to it.

Matter is a physical form, built from the combination of amounts of passive time and energy.

Passive time is the new quantum physics concept, and it will completely change the face of physics.

Carbon, gold, nitrogen, copper, are physical forms.

Passive time is absolute rest and absolute cold, and it fills the infinite space.

Passive time is the passive medium that transmits the light of the sun.

http://img2.timg.co.il/forums/3/c8659042-cdd9-4060-b7fd-a3872d542a4b.pdf