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Albert Einstein - scientist and philosopher: the man who forever changed the perception of space and time

Einstein is considered the greatest theoretician, along with Isaac Newton, the father of classical mechanics. His name became synonymous with genius. He gained worldwide fame in the first quarter of the 20th century thanks to the theory of relativity he developed

Professor Asher Yaholum, Ariel University in Samaria

Photograph of Prof. Albert Einstein in New Jersey, 1947, hand-colored in 2022. Illustration: depositphotos.com
Photograph of Prof. Albert Einstein in New Jersey, 1947, hand-colored in 2022. Illustration: depositphotos.com

introduction

Albert Einstein (in German: Albert Einstein March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a Jewish-German physicist, one of the greatest scientists of all time. As a philosopher and a philosopher of science he was a follower of Spinoza's philosophy which saw a unity between nature and God.

Einstein is considered the greatest theoretician, along with Isaac Newton, the father of classical mechanics. His name became synonymous with genius. He gained worldwide publicity in the first quarter of the 20th century thanks to the theory of relativity he developed (special relativity and general relativity), which changed what was known until then about the nature of time, space, mass, motion and gravity. He was also known for his contributions to the fields of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics and the explanation of the photoelectric effect. For his unique contribution to the latter subject, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.

Besides his decisive part in the development of the fields of science, he also spoke out and acted on current issues and was a passionate socialist and Zionist. Among other things, he worked together with his friend Haim Weizman to collect donations for Zionism during his travels in the United States and even actively worked for the establishment of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and served as the chairman of its academic council. In 1932, before the Nazis came to power and due to the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany and in particular the German physics movement that came out against Einstein, he moved to live and teach in the United States. Although he defined himself as a pacifist, Einstein signed the Einstein-Szilard letter written to President Roosevelt encouraging the development of nuclear weapons in the United States before Nazi Germany reached this capability. However, after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Einstein was one of the main speakers who called for the banning of nuclear weapons, and even established the "Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists" for this purpose.

Einstein rejected David Ben-Gurion's offer to serve as the country's president after Weizmann's death, at the same time in his will he ordered to bequeath all his writings to the Hebrew University.

his life story

Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in the city of Ulm, which was in the province of Württemberg in the German Empire (now the state of Baden-Württemberg), to a Jewish family - his mother Paulina née Koch, and his father Herman, who owned a small electrochemical factory that failed in business (the Einstein family was an assimilated Jewish family that used names Germans and you have to go back several generations in the family tree to find Jewish names there). Six weeks after his birth, his family moved to Munich in Bavaria due to his father's business. At the age of five he fell ill, and to make his heart happy his father fixed a simple compass for him. Even then, as he recounted years later, he began to explore the north of the laws of nature. In the fall of 1885, he began studying at a Catholic public school, as the only Jewish child in his class, and also began to learn to play the violin, at the same time he received a Jewish education at home.

In high school he excelled in mathematics and physics, but not in other subjects, because he was forced to study them with methods that were not to his liking, especially in Latin. His Latin teacher predicted that "this plant will never make flour". Einstein later said that it was a real miracle that the education regime was not able to completely displace his curiosity. In 1895, his family moved to Milan, and after a short stay, Einstein moved to study at the cantonal school in Barau, Switzerland. In 1896 he renounced his German citizenship due to his abhorrence of the German militaristic mentality. At the same time, he also began developing thought experiments in which he imagined different situations and their physical consequences.

He completed his academic studies as a graduate of the Zurich ETH Institute of Technology (between 1896-1900). One of his supporters, Herman Minkowski, who resented Einstein's demonstrated indifference, called him a "lazy dog" (he later retracted the statement, and was a supporter of the idea of ​​the theory of relativity at its inception and played a decisive role in shaping the concept of space-time arising from the theory of relativity). Upon receiving Swiss citizenship in 1901, Einstein began working at the government patent office in Bern, the capital, from 1902 to 1908, initially as a third-rate technical expert. In 1906 he received his doctor's degree from the University of Zurich, and was promoted in the patent office to the rank of second-rate technical expert. In 1909 he competed for the position of professor of physics at the university against his friend Friedrich Adler who was accepted for the position, but gave it up in favor of Einstein.

When Einstein was a sophomore studying mathematics and physics, he heard about the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment, in which it was proven that the speed of light does not change, despite the change in the relative motion of the earth towards the "ether" - the imaginary medium in which, as they assumed at the time, the waves vibrate and progress Electromagnetics According to the prevailing opinion in those days among the scientific community, one of the factors that led Einstein to develop the special theory of relativity was the inability of Michaelson and Morley to measure changes in the speed of light in relation to the movement of the earth within the "ether". Another factor was the difference in Maxwell's equations (the electromagnetic equations developed by Maxwell in the mid-nineteenth century) for two observers moving at a constant speed relative to each other (which contradicted the view that the laws of nature do not depend on the observer). Einstein had two choices to adapt the theory of electromagnetism to the symmetry properties of classical mechanics or to adapt classical mechanics to the symmetry properties of Maxwell's equations, Einstein chose the second option, and thus was born the special theory of relativity which he presented in his 1905 paper. In the years 1902-1905, a learning group gathered around Einstein which he called the "Olympia Academy", which included a number of close acquaintances, and was also attended by his first wife Mileva Marich. This group clearly dealt with diverse issues from the world of philosophy, mathematics and physics, among them the preoccupation with Riemann's non-Euclidean geometry, as well as the philosophical thought of Spinoza and Ernst Mach. To a large extent, the discussions in this group were used as a conceptual and philosophical basis, upon which Einstein's various breakthroughs were built in the following years.

The Year of Wonders

In 1905 (Year of Miracles - Annus Mirabilis) Einstein published four articles in the Annalen der Physik, the most important scientific journal for physics at that time. These articles are considered cornerstones of modern physics, which changed the concepts that were accepted until then regarding the connections between space, time and matter:

  • "On the movement required by the molecular kinetic theory of heat and of small particles staying on the surface of a liquid at rest" (Über die von der molecularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforfente Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen) - this article explained the movement of gases and dust particles floating in a liquid, a phenomenon known as Brownian motion. The article was an important contribution to the physical field of statistical mechanics and strengthened the belief about the existence of atoms, when at that time many considered them a purely theoretical fiction.
  • • "On a heuristic point of view in the production and transmission of light" (Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes berettenden heuristicschen Gesichtspunkt) - in this article Einstein presented the quantization of light (that is, of electromagnetic radiation) and its division into discrete energy packets, which behave like particles - in contrast to the wave theory of light, which dominated in those days (but in accordance with Newton's original conception of the essence of light). Einstein deduced this partly on the basis of Max Planck's article on black body radiation, Max Planck became Einstein's solution in German science. Although it was a secondary part of the article, the main part of his publication came from explaining the photoelectric effect discovered in the Frank-Hertz experiment, in which a metal emits electrons only when light above a certain threshold frequency is irradiated on it. Einstein explained this by claiming that light energy comes in discrete portions, "quanta", which are carried by photons - massless particles of electromagnetic energy - and that the energy each photon carries is proportional to its frequency. Together with Max Planck's paper relating to black body radiation, this paper formed the basis of quantum mechanics and the concept of wave-particle duality of light. For this article, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.
  • "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" (Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper) - in this article Einstein presented the special theory of relativity. Until then, only Newton's theory of mechanics, according to which time progresses equally at every point in the universe, was accepted in theoretical physics. However, experiments conducted in the 19th century revealed that the behavior of light differs from conventional predictions, and the theory that had dominated physics until then began to be undermined. As hinted at in the title of the article, the first goal of the theory of relativity was to resolve the contradiction in the electromagnetic theory, more precisely the one that arises from the Lorentz force where there is a reference to the speed of the particle, when it is not clear exactly what speed is involved (that is, in relation to which system it is measured). It follows that, in different reference systems - a different magnetic force acts on the particle and it will develop a different acceleration. Even before Einstein, a Dutch physicist named Lorenz developed transformations between reference systems that solve the problem, but they were empirically "tailored" especially for this problem. Einstein's approach was much more radical: he redefined what time is and what space is, using two postulates: one, the lack of change in the speed of light in relation to different observers moving at a constant speed relative to each other, that is: every observer, in any frame of reference, will measure a constant speed of light : cEven if he moves towards the light source and even if he moves away from it; The second, keeping all the laws of physics under all inertial reference systems. Einstein showed how it is possible to derive the Lorentz transformation that binds space and time together (the presentation of space-time as a 4-dimensional space was made by Einstein's teacher, the Jewish mathematician Herman Minkowski). The special theory of relativity was revolutionary because it changed all existing concepts about time and space. Examples: two events that happen at the same time (simultaneously) in one system, do not necessarily happen at the same time in another reference system; The lengthening of time and the shortening of the length of a moving body, for different observers and more.
  • "Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content?" (Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energiegehalt abhängig?) - In this article, Einstein established the equivalence between mass and energy as a conclusion of the special theory of relativity, and thereby established, in fact, that the law of conservation of mass and the law of conservation of energy are two sides of the same coin. The most popular and shortest summary of this article is the well-known equation E=mc² (energy equals mass times the speed of light squared).
Einstein's famous equation. Illustration: depositphotos.com
Einstein's famous equation. Illustration: depositphotos.com

The formula is useful in understanding various nuclear processes including the fission of uranium and the fusion of hydrogen, both related to the production of nuclear energy and atomic weapons.

On April 30, 1905, Einstein presented at the University of Zurich his doctoral thesis, "Redetermination of Molecular Dimensions" (Eine neue Bestimmung der Molekuledimensionen), which was written under the guidance of Alfred Kleiner. On January 15, 1906, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by the University Senate.

In the years that followed, Einstein tried to get an academic position, but despite his achievements, he refused. In the museum of the city of Bern, about half of which is dedicated to Einstein's life and work, a letter of refusal to Einstein's request to be appointed a teacher from abroad at the University of Bern was found and bears a date from 1907, that is, two years after the publication of the special theory of relativity.

In 1909, Einstein was appointed associate professor of theoretical physics at the University of Zurich. In 1911 he was also appointed a professor at Charles University in Prague. In 1912 he returned to the Higher Polytechnic School of Zurich, this time as a full professor. In 1914 he was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics at the Humboldt University in Berlin (thanks to the intervention of Max Planck). Upon joining the university he returned to Germany and lived in Berlin. Then he was also elected a member of the Prussian State Academy of Sciences and was given a salary without any teaching obligation, so that he could devote all his time and energy to research. In these years Einstein became a German citizen again.

General Relativity

The space-time fabric that determines gravity according to Einstein's theory of relativity. Illustration: depositphotos.com
The space-time fabric that determines gravity according to Einstein's theory of relativity. Illustration: depositphotos.com

Einstein also concluded and decreed that the curvature of space at a certain point is directly proportional to the density of mass and energy at that point. He expressed his results in the mathematical language developed by the mathematician Riemann.

Einstein's theory of general relativity had a number of predictions that differed from those of classical mechanics and Newton's theory of gravitation. Some of them:

• The spread of a gravitational field in space is not instantaneous, but is limited to the speed of light[1].

• Mass distorts and warps space, so that the geodesy (the shortest path between two points) between any two points is also curved, and gravity is nothing more than a simulated force caused by the aspiration of each body to move along the shortest path possible for it in curved space-time.

A commemorative coin issued in Switzerland in honor of Einstein. Illustration: depositphotos.com
A commemorative coin issued in Switzerland in honor of Einstein. Illustration: depositphotos.com

• A conclusion from the previous idea is that the degree of deviation of a light beam from a straight path under the influence of a given mass will be twice as expected according to Newton's laws, while causing a stronger "gravitational lensing"[2].

• Corrections in relation to the theoretical orbit of the planet Hema (Mercury), which until that time was different from what was obtained in the observations[3].

His philosophical views

The issue of determinism (meaning is everything predetermined?) and science, in which Einstein even referred to God, raised the question of his position regarding his faith. His student Moshe Yamer studied Einstein's positions on this subject and summarized them in the book "Einstein and Religion".

In Einstein's letter to Rabbi Herbert Goldstein in 1929, he said: "I believe in the God of Spinoza, who reveals himself in the harmony and laws of nature, and not in a God who concerns himself with the fate and actions of human beings." When asked if he is a pantheist, he replied: "I am not an atheist. I don't know if I can define myself as a pantheist. The problem involved is too huge for our limited minds. May I answer with a parable? The human mind, however trained, cannot grasp the universe. We are in the position of a small child, entering a huge library whose walls are covered to the ceiling with books in many different languages. The child knows that someone must have written these books. He does not know who or how. He does not understand the languages ​​in which they are written. The child notices a clear plan in the arrangement of the books - a mysterious order, the nature of which he cannot understand, but can hardly suspect. This, as it seems to me, is the approach of the human mind, even the greatest and most civilized, towards God. We see a wonderfully ordered universe, operating according to certain laws, but we hardly understand them. Our limited minds are unable to grasp the mysterious force that drives the star clusters. I am fascinated by Spinoza's pantheism. Even more than that I admire his contribution to modern thought. Spinoza is the greatest of the modern philosophers, because he is the first philosopher who treated the mind and body as one entity, not as two separate things."

In 1930 he published an article in the New York Times entitled "Religion and Science" in which he discussed three styles of religion. In primitive man, "it was mainly fear that inspired religious ideas - fear of hunger, of prey animals, of disease and death." Since human understanding of causal relationships was still undeveloped, the mind created supernatural beings who were worshiped by making sacrifices and making offerings. Einstein called this first stage in the development of religion "the religion of fear." The next stage in the development of religion, according to Einstein's method, is the "social or moral concept of God", which stems from the "longing for guidance, love and support". God is a factor that rewards and punishes, comforts in times of distress and preserves the souls of the dead. The Bible and the New Testament provide Einstein with an admirable example of a transition from the religion of fear to the gradual birth of the religion of morality, which is still attached to an anthropomorphic (manish) conception of God. The third stage of the religious experience, which Einstein calls "the cosmic religious feeling", is "a situation that is very difficult to describe clearly... for those who lack it completely, mainly because there is no anthropomorphic conception of God that suits him". Einstein considered himself religious in the third sense, or in his words: "My religion consists of submissive adoration, for the unlimited Supreme Spirit, which reveals itself in trivial details, which we are able to grasp with our fragile and weak minds. This deep conviction in the presence of a superior intelligent power, revealed in a universe that cannot be understood, is the ideal of my God."

Einstein abhorred that people try to associate him with one camp or another on matters of faith. Not to the atheist camp: "You can call me an agnostic, but I do not share the fighting spirit of the atheists, whose enthusiasm stems mainly from the painful act of freeing themselves from the shackles of the religious preaching they received in their youth", and he asserted: "...there are still people who say there is no God, but what really angers me He that those people quote me in order to support their position", but he also did not spare his tribe from the sides of providence who tried to attribute it to mechanim: "What you read about my religious faith was, of course, a lie - a lie that is systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal deity and I have never denied it, but I have expressed it clearly. If there is anything in me that can be called religious, it is an unlimited admiration for the structure of the world as far as our science can reveal it."

his personality

Einstein was a humble man in his ways and was content with little. The Rabbi used his publication to promote public goals such as peace between nations and brotherhood between mankind. He was endowed with a subtle sense of humor and was liked by his listeners. Despite the complexity of his teachings, he knew how to clarify with examples that are equal to every soul. The theories he put forward completely undermined traditional physics when it came to very tiny masses or very high speed motion. He brought about a real revolution in scientific research, and fundamentally changed the world view of all humanity. Until his last day, he believed in the existence of one comprehensive Torah that would contain within it all the basic laws governing nature, from the electron to the universe itself - the theory of everything, but in the end he was unable to formulate this theory. Even in his last years, he did not stop engaging in physical research, and he published his last article with his research assistant Broria Kaufman, in January 1955.


[1] Asher Yahalom "Lorentz Symmetry Group, Retardation, Intergalactic Mass Depletion and Mechanisms Leading to Galactic Rotation Curves" Symmetry 2020, 12(10), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12101693  https://arxiv.org/abs/2012.04490

[2] Yahalom, A. Lensing Effects in Retarded Gravity. Symmetry 2021, 13, 1062. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13061062 . https://arxiv.org/abs/2108.04683 .

[3] Yahalom, A. The Weak Field Approximation of General Relativity and the Problem of Precession of the Perihelion for Mercury. Symmetry 2023, 15, 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15010039

More of the topic in Hayadan:

45 תגובות

  1. Israel
    You cannot know the exact position of a photon. It is somewhat similar to the situation where you narrow a laser beam - the more you narrow it, the more it spreads. Pass a single photon through a very small hole - it will move in a random direction after passing through.

    How do you have patience for this moron???

  2. Hey, don't go! We are trying to organize for you a repetition of the scope experiment at the Technion as you have requested and demanded all these years, and you do not have to do anything or pay, so where have you disappeared to in the highlight moment of your life?

    Wrong.

  3. Oh, I see, so when you wrote that you had a proof, you meant a proof based on the new axiom you established..

    The Lord preserves the children.

    And why don't you answer the question about the Technion student? This is the simple and sure way that the Technion will repeat your experiment with a lot of drama. So what is the problem with his nerves?

  4. There is no need to prove Asbar's rule, just as there is no need to prove the famous rule that says:
    The shortest distance between two points has the shape of a straight line.
    It is nonsense to try to provide proof for these rules, or to give them an empirical basis.
    These rules can only be tried to be disproved, and they have never been disproved.
    If any of these rules is severed, it will immediately be void.
    Fermat established the rule: there are no equations of the type aa + bbab = ggg
    This rule cannot be proven, and one can only try to disprove it by presenting numbers A, B, N
    These A B C numbers have never been shown.

    Asbar's rule prevents mathematics from operating in the geometric field of circles, and leaves it the field of triangles built from straight line segments -
    Esbar's rule moves the circuits to the physical domain that deals with measurements, and it is no wonder that mathematicians are not satisfied with this arrangement, and with the idea that Pai varies in a narrow range between 3.1415 and 3.164
    This field created a revolution in the exact sciences of geometry and physics, and this revolution can be given to the geometrical proof of drawings, and to the mechanical proof with the help of the scope.

    A. Asbar

  5. @Israel Shapira

    The third chapter in the article where he develops the Lorentz factor.

    Xi = Tau *c
    This equation is written below the next line: "For a ray of light emitted at thr time tau = 0 in the direction of the increasing".
    Copy to F3 and you will find the equation.

    The following two equations:
    Tau = phi(v)*beta*(t-vx/c^2)
    Xi = phi*beta*(x-vt)
    You will find them under the following sentence: "Substituting for x' its value, we obtain".

    Just put x=1,v=0, t=0, which is a perfectly valid placement.

    By the way, this is another weak claim. The really strong claim is that Einstein says that the measured speed of light is cv!!

    “But, the beam moves relative to the starting point of k
    , when it is measured from the stationary system, with speed c−v"

    The speed of light in any frame of reference in motion relative to any object should be c.

  6. This is not a proof, it is your arbitrary assertion without any geometrical or empirical basis.

    If you really want the drama of the Technion perimeter experiment, why not do what I suggested, ask a Technion student to do your experiment with more rotations. If you are right, he will tell his professor and the Technion will be happy to perform the experiment as you requested.

    Does it have less drama? Or maybe the only drama you're really asking for is for people to relate to your bullshit?

  7. You asked for radius length and string length -
    It means that you asked for the longest string length, (say 170 mm, and a shorter string length (say 33 mm)
    Asbar's rule is always valid - it is impossible to calculate the length of a bow, based on the millimeter length of its string.

    A. Asbar

  8. Nervous, is this another one of your arbitrary assertions like the one that the universe moves at 12c? Give me the length of the radius and the length of the string and I'll tell you exactly what the arc length of the string is..

    You might be able to convince your roommates at the institution but don't expect the Technion to take your nonsense.

    Miracles

    A green photon in a certain frame of reference has a specific and unique wavelength.

  9. An amazing rule that prevents mathematics from dealing with circles

    This rule was discovered by Asbar, and he says:
    It is impossible to calculate the length of a bow, according to the millimeter length of its string.

    To prove the amazing rule, we will draw several circles, and add a 25 mm long string to all of them. From these simple drawings a clear fact is revealed, that in every circle the length of the arc is different. Several conclusions can be drawn from this fact.

    Conclusion A:
    An infinite number of bows can be fitted to a string that is 25 mm long, and each bow will have a different millimeter length. The shortest arc (with a length of 25 mm plus a drop) will appear in a circle with a diameter of, for example, 1000 mm, and the longest arc will appear in a circle with a diameter of 25 mm.

    Conclusion B:
    Since for every millimeter length of string, an infinite number of bows can be fitted, the only way to obtain the millimeter length of a bow according to a millimeter length of string, is by the following steps.
    You need to draw a string of a chosen length (say 18 mm) in a circle whose diameter is greater than 18 mm (say 45 mm), and thus a bow with a string, whose length is 18 mm, will appear in the drawing.

    There is no way to calculate the length of this arc, and the only way is to measure its length with a simple ruler, when it is clear that this is not an exact measurement.

    If we were to draw this string that is 18 mm long in a circle with a diameter of 100 mm, we would get a bow that is smaller than the length of the previous bow, and of course we would have to measure its length with a ruler.
    It turns out that Asbar's amazing rule always works,
    It is impossible to calculate the length of a bow based on the millimeter length of its string, and the only way is to measure its length with a simple ruler.

    Since the diameter of a circle is the longest string, it must be treated like any string, and we will also have to measure the length of the arc of this string with a ruler.
    From here will come the next difficult conclusion.
    There is no way to calculate the length of half the circumference of the circle based on the millimeter length of its diameter, and we will have to measure the length of half the circumference with a simple ruler.
    And from here to the most difficult conclusion of all.
    There is no way to calculate the length of the circumference of the circle based on the millimeter length of its diameter, and we will have to measure the length of the circumference with a simple ruler.

    It now turns out that mathematics is able to operate in the geometric field of triangles, and is not able to operate in the geometric field of circles.
    The geometric domain of triangles belongs to mathematics and its calculations, while the domain
    The geometry of circles belongs to physics and its measurements.
    Esbar's circuit research is really physical research.
    For the purpose of this research, a precise mechanical device was built, determined by experiment,
    that the ratio of the diameters of two selected circles (is not equal) to the ratio of their circumferences.
    From this result arose a conclusion which stated that every millimeter diameter D of a circle must have a special PI number, and the way was immediately opened to calculate the circumference of the circle according to its millimeter diameter.

    The circumference of a circle according to its millimeter diameter was never calculated, until the Asbar formula appeared.

    In this formula, the diameter of the circle D must be written in millimeters, when D is greater than 0.001 mm, and the formula will provide the length of the circumference C in millimeters.

    This is how the Asbar formula calculates C based on D

    C is equal to D times [3.1416 plus root of (0.0000003 divided by D)

    The Asbar formula introduces a new geometry of circles that is unknown to science.

    A. Asbar

  10. Israel
    A single photon whose position you know is not monochromatic. That is - there is no certain momentum. In general - a sine is infinite, and as soon as you set a beginning (or end) then you get a wave packet (Fourier decomposition...)

  11. It's not the accuracy of the clock - it's its position..

    You are missing the point. A photon in a specific frame of reference has a specific wavelength whether we have measured it or not. getting?

    And if he left the traffic light at time t then his distance from the traffic light is ct get?

    We therefore accepted that a photon in the same system at point x has both a definite position and momentum, whether we measured them or not. getting?

  12. Israel
    How do you build a very high precision watch? At the end there is something that oscillates and has a final resolution.
    And how do you measure the color of a photon with very high accuracy??

  13. Sorry I looked at your geometric proof of a variable pi. It is based, I believe, on the assumption that you cannot tell the length of a bow by the length of its string. In Euclidean geometry it is indeed possible, so where is the proof?

  14. There is no problem measuring the position of the clock that the photon reaches with any desired level of accuracy, therefore the uncertainty in its momentum, i.e. the wavelength, increases to infinity.

    But we do know the wavelength of the photon, it is simply a function of its color which we know with any desired level of accuracy.

  15. Israel
    The experiment is imaginary... the principle of uncertainty does not apply to this experiment, because the principle speaks of the very accuracy of an actual measurement

  16. Go to the orange math forum, I just posted the geometric proof of a variable pie.
    You already know the mechanical proof that appears in the scope experiment.

    A. Asbar

  17. The subject of variable pi has two proofs, a mechanical proof that appears in the perimeter experiment, and a geometric proof that appears in simple drawings found on pages 116 117 of my book. .
    The geometric proof is based on the idea that a straight line between two points is the shortest line.
    If we draw a "slightly curved" line between these two points, its length will be slightly greater than the length of the straight line that appears between the two points.
    The geometric proof of the variable pi theme is simple and clear but there is no drama in it.
    The drama appears in the mechanical experiment, when all the spectators in the experiment are waiting to see if the big hand will complete a full turn "plus a drop"

    When I said that the scope experiment could be dispensed with, I relied on the simple and wonderful geometrical proof, which appears on pages 116 117 of the book "The Magical Journey of Asbar on the Wings of Natural Knowledge"

    For 2000 years, mathematics has been wrong and misleading on the subject of constant pie, and it has not yet gathered the courage and integrity to say - we were wrong

    I am surprised that a respected scientific journal like the Scientist publishes all kinds of nonsense about dark matter and black holes, and does not say anything about the "black hole" of mathematics - whose name is fixed pie.

    The mathematics that tried to deal with the pi issue delayed the appearance of neural geometry, for 2000 years.
    But the truth cannot be hidden, and the scope experiment conducted in 2017 revealed the idea that pi varies between 3.1415 and 3.164

    A. Asbar

  18. Anti-Einstein

    I would appreciate it if you could go over the equation equation relativity article and show why one is equal to zero.

    got upset

    Can you come up with the same simple mathematical proof for a variable pi? Please no references, just bring the proof.

  19. I actually realized a long time ago that everything here is based on drama and Daoin. You have nothing to do with science.

    So why does the Technion need your drama? Sign up for a drama course or your psychologist.

  20. You still haven't understood Israel Shapira, that the scope experiment came to present a drama.
    After all, no one will believe that a mechanical experiment will reveal a mathematical truth, which mathematics alone is not capable of discovering.
    Nor is there any mathematician or physicist who will believe.
    No one believes, because for 2000 years we got used to hearing about a wonderful mathematical constant, called pi.
    Who would dare to doubt the ancient idea of ​​a permanent pie?
    What mathematician would believe that a mechanical experiment reveals that pi changes?
    So I prepared for all those who reject a mechanical experiment, a wonderful and simple geometrical proof, capable of convincing anyone.
    After that, the Technion will be happy to repeat the scope experiment,
    A. Asbar

  21. My father or someone, I'm in California, but if you can find some physics or engineering student who will conduct for Asbar his scope experiment with 1000 rounds with the equipment in Asbar's possession and report the results of the experiment to his institution, then Sahabak is willing to pay the few hundred shekels the student requests.

    If the experiment really shows a changing pie, then there is no doubt that the academic institution, the Technion for example, will conduct the experiment a second time as Esbar demands.

    (In secret I will whisper to you that I am not risking a penny. Asbar will never agree to this logical arrangement because he knows that his whole experiment is regrettable).

  22. You don't need to measure exactly. Relativity is based on a thought experiment, and this thought experiment is contrary to the uncertainty principle in quantum theory, which did not yet exist in 1905.

    To see this, think of two light-second-long trains in relative motion on parallel tracks. When their backs come together, a photon is emitted from one of them towards the bow. It will take a photon exactly one second to reach the head of each train according to their clocks which are synchronized with each other but not with each other.

    But because of the relative movement between them, train A has already moved forward relative to B, therefore since the photon arrives at the head of A at a time of one second according to its clock, then when it reaches the head of B at a time of one second according to the clock of B, then it is guaranteed that the time is less than a second in train A which is in front of Khartoum B, because it still has a certain distance to go to reach Khartoum A.

    This is based on the idea of ​​time lengthening in relationships, see Einstein's original article on relativity:

    http://hermes.ffn.ub.es/luisnavarro/nuevo_maletin/Einstein_1905_relativity.pdf

    But this requires that the photon has a precise position, even approximately, when it reaches the bow B and the carriage A at the exact moment, contrary to the uncertainty principle.

    From this contradiction arise all future conflicts between relativity and quanta, according to APR.

  23. A golden opportunity to present the scope experiment
    Any measurement that seeks perfect equality is doomed to failure
    Measurement is unable to determine with certainty a state of perfect equality.
    Measurement is able to determine with certainty a state of inequality.
    The circumference experiment determined with certainty - the ratio of the diameters of two circles (not equal) to the ratio of their circumferences.
    The dramatic result - pie is not equal in all circles.
    A. Asbar

    https://youtu.be/u2vamaSj-mw

  24. Israel
    Photon's data measurement is not accurate. To measure frequency - you cannot be precise in the position (because you need a device of finite size). You cannot measure time accurately (every clock has a finite resolution).
    And you can't accurately measure a location either.

  25. Time is measured with a clock and frequency with a frequency meter. The frequency of a photon in a specific inertial system corresponds to a certain measurable color.

    According to Einstein, a light beam or a single photon with a certain wavelength reaches a certain clock in a certain inertial system at a certain and distinct moment. Hence the lengthening of times.

  26. Israel Shapira,

    I appreciate your critical thinking, but I object that the mistake is about the Uncertainty Principle that stems from the Planck scale, the smallest scale known to us, while relativity is the "physics of big things".
    It's like you solve an exercise in mechanics and don't consider quantum or relativistic effects.

    Einstein developed the theory of relativity to explain Michelson and Morley's experiment in addition to creating a relative identity between the electric field and the magnetic field as opposed to the difference in Maxwell's equations (a change of one in time equals a change of the other in space, so he invented space-time). Therefore the article is developed from the equation that describes the movement of light between the half-mirror and the reflecting mirror in Michelson's experiment and this part of the article ends with the Lorentz factor. Einstein did not have a natural way to connect Mikeslon and Morley to the Lorentz transformation, therefore by simply putting x=1, t=0, v=0, we get that 1=0, or Einstein explicitly says that the speed of light measured in a stationary reference system is cv, completely contrary to the assumption His second fundamental theory of relativity.

    My claims do not imply that the theory of relativity is wrong, but only that that article is wrong. Although my mother does believe that relativity is wrong.

  27. Good luck, father, we'll see if you succeed, maybe you'll get some kind of annoying response and not a reference to his stupid book.

    Nisimov - I think there is indeed a problem in the original relativity article. If you replace a light beam with a light photon, you will see that the photon has a distinct position and time frequency, contrary to the uncertainty principle.

  28. Continuation of my response to Mr. Avi Belizoski

    https://youtu.be/u2vamaSj-mw

    This is the circumference experiment that discovered the existence of a new geometry, the existence of which mathematics ignores.

    I hope that the science site will undertake a scientific mission, to convince the Technion, or the Weizmann Institute, or the National Physics Laboratory, to repeat the scope experiment, and confirm the result I received.
    After such an event, a new geometry will be taught in every university in the world, which conventional science did not know existed.

    A. Asbar

  29. I am surprised at your response Mr. Avi Blizovsky, after all you are talking about words, (in an ancient and important book and in your book) and I am talking about actions.
    426 years passed between Galileo's act of measurement, and Esbar's act of measurement.
    Galileo's act of measurement discovered the existence of a new physics, and Asbar's act of measurement discovered the existence of a new geometry.
    Geometry and physics are the exact sciences, and the language in which they are studied is the language of numbers.
    Galileo is a practical scientist who uses numbers to describe practical experiments conducted in physical reality, and he is the one who established the rule
    "The practical experiment is the final arbiter in science"
    Only after Galileo conducted a practical experiment of bodies sliding on an inclined plane, did they begin to believe that the motion of free fall occurs at an increasing speed, and not at a constant speed.
    After Galileo came Newton and Einstein, who are theoretical scientists.
    These theoretical scientists believed that quantum matter has gravity, which fulfills the rule "a lot of matter - a lot of gravity"
    But the theoretical scientists were wrong - matter has no gravitational force, and is in the nature of a physical form.
    My experiment proving that pi varies in a narrow range, between 3.14 and 3.16
    Famous on the net since 2017, but no mathematician believes me, nor is any mathematician willing to repeat the experiment.
    I stated that if they find out that I was wrong, I will admit it and accept it with a committee.
    You are also not ready to publish my book "Esbar's Magical Journey on the Wings of Natural Knowledge" but I did my part, there is also a book and there is also an experiment that I gave the name "The Scope Experiment"
    The scope experiment will go down in the history of science, and will strengthen the rule established by Galileo - the experiment is the final arbiter in science.
    I have no criticism of you and the science - on the contrary, I am full of gratitude for the opportunity I was given to express myself, on the pages of the science.

    A. Asbar

  30. hello sad You wrote "426 years separate Galileo's experiments in free fall, and Asbar's experiment with precise steel cylinders."
    Well, I too can write such things and compare myself to those older and wiser than me. For example, 2,500 years passed from the writing of the Tanach until Avi Blizovsky published the book "The Crash".
    Avi Blizovsky

  31. Einstein's physics occupied a prominent place in the Hall of Science, but it reached the end of its path.
    This is the way of a living and vibrant science, it always was, and it will be.
    Newton's physics has long since reached the end of its course
    Asbar's physics is now on the agenda, and it too will reach the end of its path.
    Soon Wikipedia will also have to update itself
    https://nivbook.co.il/product/%D7%9E%D7%A1%D7%A2-%D7%94%D7%A7%D7%A1%D7%9D-%D7%A9%D7%9C-%D7%A2%D7%A6%D7%91%D7%A8-%D7%A2%D7%9C-%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%A4%D7%99-%D7%94%D7%99%D7%93%D7%99%D7%A2%D7%94-%D7%94%D7%98%D7%91%D7%A2%D7%99%D7%AA/
    A. Asbar

  32. The man who destroyed physics and made the greatest physicists in the last 100 years believe that 0=1.

    Open the article of special relativity from 1905, in chapter 3 you will set x=1, t=0, v=0, you will get 1=0.

    Tau = c*Xhi
    Xhi = beta*varphi*(x-vt)
    Tau = beta*varphi*(t-vx/c^2)

    How do we have 0=1 half a page away?

    The answer is very clear from the following quote from the article:
    "But the ray moves relatively to the initial point of k, when measured in the stationary system, with the velocity cv, so that"

    Einstein says that the relative speed of light in a stationary frame of reference is not constant! Einstein uses the Galilean transformation with respect to light and disproves the second assumption in the most explicit way possible.

    More precisely, Einstein did this some 8 times in the article:
    C, cv, c+v, c, cv,c^2-v^2,c

    It is very clear what Einstein did. Started from Michaelson Morley to arrive at the Lorentz transformation, stitched the target and imposed it on the development so there are fundamental errors like putting in Merlek half a page to get 0=1.

  33. 426 years separate Galileo's experiments in free fall, and Asbar's experiment with precise steel cylinders.
    Galileo introduced new physics with the experiment of free fall, and Asbar introduced a new geometry of circles with the circumference experiment.
    The experiment is the final arbiter in science.
    Cole urges the Davidson Institute to repeat the scope experiment.
    Kol calls on the Technion to repeat the scope experiment.
    There is nothing to fear from the result, the ratio of the diameters is not equal to the ratio of the circumferences..
    This result will reveal to the world of science the existence of a new geometry,
    This result will force mathematics to admit that the idea of ​​a constant pi in all circles is a terrible mistake that has been passed down from generation to generation for thousands of years.
    If Galileo had discovered the law of conservation of energy, he would have explained that the increasing speed of freely falling bodies comes to fulfill the law of conservation of energy.
    After such an explanation, the idea of ​​gravity would never have come, the development of science would have changed, and neurophysics would have appeared after Galileo's physics.
    And what about Newton and Einstein? This is already a problem for Wikipedia.

    A. Asbar

  34. Asbar's experiment and Asbar himself will perhaps be studied, but not in technology classes - in psychology classes.

    The man is completely insane.

  35. Asbar's experiment and Asbar himself will perhaps be studied, but not in technology classes - in psychology classes.

    The man is completely insane.

  36. Einstein's physics has not reached the end of its path in my opinion, it also explains a black hole as a singularity in space-time.
    The unification of quantum theory with general relativity is the current theory and is in the making.
    There are more accepted theories such as strings, information-based theory. And there is less like the theory of the Dutchman VERLINDE ERIK about gravity as a force that arises from the entropy of particles, and being the quantum space ADS.
    What is amazing is how a black hole entity exists in nature and a lot. Not only in the center of every galaxy, but also one in a space 7200 light years "only" from us, at the speed at which a black hole moves is not much. Also micro black holes. Also equivalent to black holes black holes in matter acoustic waves. It's amazing how time and space in a black hole go to extremes. If a person had survived spaghettization, which is probably impossible, at least today he would see past, present, and future at the same time, and space would look like time looks to us, directional. Today's physics exceeds imagination and it's a shame they don't expand
    The university education also in non-physics faculties to include results of general relativity, and philosophy that derives from general relativity.

  37. 426 years separate Galileo's experiments in free fall, and Asbar's experiment with precise steel cylinders.
    Galileo introduced a new physics of free fall, and Asbar introduced a new geometry of circles.

  38. Newton's physics has reached the end of its journey - because matter is not a quantitative concept, and has no gravitational force.
    Einstein's physics also reached the end of its path, because it lacked passive time.
    Waiting in line is Esbar's physics, which appears in a book that has just been published.
    In neurophysics there are two types of time - active time and massive time

    https://nivbook.co.il/product/%D7%9E%D7%A1%D7%A2-%D7%94%D7%A7%D7%A1%D7%9D-%D7%A9%D7%9C-%D7%A2%D7%A6%D7%91%D7%A8-%D7%A2%D7%9C-%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%A4%D7%99-%D7%94%D7%99%D7%93%D7%99%D7%A2%D7%94-%D7%94%D7%98%D7%91%D7%A2%D7%99%D7%AA/

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