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Nano computers - the important scientific discovery of 2001

This is the choice of the editors of the magazine Science who emphasize that the invention may have practical consequences. More discoveries: completion of genome decoding of other creatures to humans, better understanding of RNA and more.

Finding ways to build electronic circuits that are no bigger than a few
Molecules are among the great scientific achievements of the year 2001. Thus
say the editors of the scientific magazine Science. The editors emphasized that the scientists
They built molecular sized circuits during the year, and even managed to assemble
What tiny transistors, cables and switching systems can do
Signal Processing.
Some of Lelo's devices were built atom by atom using little gold
and other materials, such as types of carbon that themselves form cables
tiny All these components were on a small scale measured in nanometers.
A nanometer is one billionth of a meter and you need to add a million of them together to
to reach something the size of a typical grain of sand

One of the most prominent teams that did this is a team of scientists in company laboratories
Lucent in Murray Hill, New Jersey, “The staff marched the
Electronics took a step forward when they built a transistor made of a single molecule. in so doing
The ability to produce extremely tiny electronic devices was demonstrated."
Jan Hendrik Schoen and his team reported to the journal "Science" that they had built a device
Made of a mixture of carbon, hydrogen and sulfur on a silicon wafer that contained a layer
Gold at the bottom. When the mixture evaporated, a thin film was formed, with a width of 1
a molecule. A gold electrode was deposited on top of this layer. The result: created
A transistor so small that 10 million of it fill a head
Bobby pin.

"The leap of the road made this year in the field of molecular computing, is possible
lead to the construction of tiny but fast and powerful computers that can for example
translate conversations in real time or penetrate the body for assistance in diagnosis
the diseases.” They say in Science magazine.

The possibilities are endless because the size is several thousand times smaller
One of today's fastest and smallest chips. Written by Science Editor, Donald
Canadian.
Kennedy commented that the development of molecular computers this year is only "opening up."
of a long and complicated road" in the development of the tiny computers.
The magazine also found that President Bush was responsible for the scientific failures of 2001
Since he did not appoint a scientific advisor, and thus made wrong decisions
On issues such as stem cells, arsenic in drinking water, global warming
and the terrorist attack using anthrax envelopes. "They have never faced a president
Some so many hot scientific questions, while getting very little
Help in his first year.” Science editors comment.

The other scientific developments of the year are:
* Better understanding of the role played by the RNA molecules in the cell
the human The scientists believed until now that the role of RNA was to move around the cell
and hold the instructions for protein production. New studies have shown that
The RNA can also play a role in making the proteins themselves and activating a number
enzymes.
* For thirty years, physicists studying the sun have been looking for another
Neutrino of the electron. These are subatomic particles that were thought to be
are emitted from streams of the nuclear fire of the sun. In June, she found out she was expecting
In Canada because there are indeed such neutrinos in the expected number, however few of them
changing their "flavor" from the notrino of the electron to the notrino of the muon or
to the tau-neutrino.
* Mapping the human genome and the genomes of over 60 animals and plants.
The sequence of the structure of the human genome whose mapping was completed was announced in 2000
but formally ended in early 2001. In addition, the scientists discovered the sequences
The genetics of many types of bacteria, including anthrax, are on the way
To locate the genome of the fly, the rat, the mouse, the zebra fish, all animals
The important laboratory.
* Superconducting materials, which show no resistance to electric flow are coming
gradually to room temperature. Zero electrical resistance is possible in materials
Many, but only at a temperature much lower than zero degrees. Meanwhile
The scientists managed to reach minus 151 degrees Celsius, about a point
The boiling of liquid nitrogen.
* Medicines targeted at cancer, which block the action of the so-called enzyme
Kinases play an important role in the production of cancer cells.
* A new understanding of the way in which the trees and other plants absorb the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The researchers claim that the absorption by the plants removes from the air about a third of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from fuel burning and other sources in the USA. The scientists also found that the ingestion of carbon dioxide in the US will decrease in the next hundred years as a result of environmental changes.

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